Instructions for Authors
The Open Civil Engineering Journal
is an Open Access online journal which publishes Research
articles, Reviews, Letters and guest edited single topic issues
in the field of Civil Engineering, aiming at providing the
most complete and reliable source of information on current
developments in the field.
Manuscripts may be submitted directly to email@example.com.
Each peer-reviewed article that is published in a Bentham
OPEN Journal is universally and freely accessible via
the Internet in an easily readable and printable PDF format.
Online Manuscript Submission: An online submission
and tracking service via Internet facilitates a speedy
and cost-effective submission of manuscripts.1
The full manuscript has to be submitted online via
Bentham's Content Management System (CMS) at http://www.bentham-editorial.org/
Alternatively, you may also submit your full manuscript by
e-mail to firstname.lastname@example.org
Manuscripts must be submitted by one of the authors of the
manuscript, and should not be submitted by anyone on their
behalf. The principal/corresponding author will be required
to submit a Covering Letter along with the manuscript, on
behalf of all the co-authors (if any). The author(s) will
confirm that the manuscript (or any part of it) has not been
published previously or is not under consideration for publication
elsewhere. Furthermore, any illustration, structure or table
that has been published elsewhere must be reported, and copyright
permission for reproduction must be obtained.
For all online submissions, please provide soft copies of
all the materials (main text in MS Word or Tex/LaTeX), figures
/ illustrations in TIFF, PDF or JPEG, and chemical structures
drawn in ChemDraw (CDX) / ISISDraw (TGF) as separate files,
while a PDF version of the entire manuscript must also be
included, embedded with all the figures / illustrations /
tables / chemical structures etc. It is advisable that the
document files related to a manuscript submission should always
have the name of the corresponding author as part of the file
name, i.e., "Cilli MS text.doc" , "Cilli MS Figure
It is imperative that before submission, authors should carefully
proofread the files for special characters, mathematical symbols,
Greek letters, equations, tables and images, to ensure that
they appear in proper format.
A successful electronic submission of a manuscript will be
followed by a system-generated acknowledgement to the principal/corresponding
author within 72 hours of the dispatch of
the manuscript. Any questions with regards to the preparation
of and submission of your manuscript to the journal should
be addressed to email@example.com
and copied to firstname.lastname@example.org
NOTE: Any queries therein should be addressed
and copied to Jalil@benthamscience.org
Editorial Policies: The editorial policies of Bentham Open on publication ethics, peer-review, plagiarism, copyrights/ licenses, errata/corrections and article retraction/ withdrawal can be viewed at Policy Page.
Manuscript Preparation: The
manuscript should be written in English in a clear, direct
and active style. All pages must be numbered sequentially,
facilitating in the reviewing and editing of the manuscript.
For further convenience, the customer support team available
at Eureka Science can provide assistance to authors for the preparation of manuscripts.
Research Articles: The total number of words
for a published research article is from 4000 to 8000 words.
Review Articles: The total number of words for a published comprehensive review article is from 8000 to 40000 words, and for mini-review articles from 3000 to 6000 words.
Letter Articles: The total number of words
for a published letter/short communication article is from
3000 to 6000 words.
There is no restriction on the number of figures, tables or
additional files e.g. video clips, animation and datasets,
that can be included with each article online. Authors should
include all relevant supporting data with each article.
Manuscripts Published: The journal accepts original research articles, letters and review articles written in English. Supplements, proceedings of conferences and open access book reviews may also be considered for publication.
Supplement/Thematic Issues: The journal also considers Supplement/Thematic issues for publication. The Guest Edited Thematic Issues are published free of charge.
A Supplement/Thematic issues will be a collection of articles (minimum of 6, maximum of 20 articles) based on a contemporary theme or topic of great importance to the field. Mini-supplements consisting of between 3 to 5 articles are also welcome. A Supplement can consist of either all review articles or a mixture of review and research articles. The Guest Editors' main editorial task is to invite the contributors to the Supplement and to manage the peer review of submitted manuscripts. A short summary or proposal for editing a supplement should be submitted to the Editor-in-Chief at e-mail to email@example.com
with a copy to firstname.lastname@example.org
Conference Proceedings: For proposals to publish conference proceedings in this journal, please contact us at email: email@example.com
Book Reviews: This journal publishes
open access reviews on recently published books (both print
and electronic) relevant to the journal. Publishers and authors
of books are invited to contact our book reviews editor at
with book review requests. All submitted books will be reviewed
by an independent expert in the field. No page charges will be levied to authors for the publication of book reviews.
MANUSCRIPT SECTIONS FOR PAPERS: Manuscripts
for research articles and letters submitted to the respective
journals should be divided into the following sections; however,
there can be an extension in the number of sections in review
articles in accordance with the requirements of the topic.
List of abbreviations (if any)
Conflict of interest
Figures/illustrations (if any)
Chemical structures (if any)
Tables (if any)
Supportive/supplementary material (if any)
COPYRIGHT LETTER: It is a mandatory requirement
that a signed copyright letter also be submitted along with
the manuscript by the author to whom correspondence is to
be addressed, delineating the scope of the submitted article
declaring the potential competing interests, acknowledging
contributions from authors and funding agencies, and certifying
that the paper is prepared according to the 'Instructions
for Authors'. All inconsistencies in the text
and in the reference section, and any typographical errors
must be carefully checked and corrected before the submission
of the manuscript. The article should not contains any such material or
information that may be unlawful, defamatory, fabricated,
plagiarized, or which would, if published, in any way whatsoever,
violate the terms and conditions as laid down in the agreement.
The authors acknowledge that the publishers have the legal
right to take appropriate action against the authors for any
such violation of the terms and conditions as laid down in
the agreement. Download
the Copyright letter
TITLE: The title should be precise and brief
and must not be more than 120 characters. Authors should avoid
the use of non-standard abbreviations. The title must be written
in title case except for articles, conjunctions and prepositions.
Authors should also provide a short ‘running title’.
TITLE PAGE: Title page should include paper
title, author(s) full name and affiliation, corresponding
author(s) names complete affiliation/address, along with phone,
fax and email.
ABSTRACT: The abstract should not exceed
250 words for review and research papers and should be limited
to only 150 words for letters, summarizing the essential features
of the article. The use of abbreviations should be reduced
to a minimum and the references should not be cited in the
KEYWORDS: Please provide 6-8 keywords in
TEXT ORGANIZATION: The main text should begin
on a separate page and should be divided into separate sections.
For Research articles, the preparation of the main text must
be structured into separate sections as Introduction,
Materials and Methodology, Results, Discussion and Conclusion.
For Review and Letter articles, the manuscript should be divided
into title page, abstract and the main text. The text may
be subdivided further according to the areas to be discussed,
which should be followed by the Acknowledgements and
Reference sections. The review article should mention any
previous important reviews in the field and contain a comprehensive
discussion starting with the general background of the field.
It should then go on to discuss the salient features of recent
developments. The authors should avoid presenting material
which has already been published in a previous review. The
authors are advised to present and discuss their observations
in brief. The manuscript style must be uniform throughout
the text and 10 pt Times New Roman font should be used. The
full term for an abbreviation should precede its first appearance
in the text unless it is a standard unit of measurement. The
reference numbers should be given in square brackets in the
Binomial Names: (Relevant for only Biomedical Field)
Italics should be used for Binomial names of organisms (Genus
and Species), for emphasis and for unfamiliar words or phrases.
Non-assimilated words from Latin or other languages should
also be italicized e.g. per se, et al. etc.
Chemical Reaction Data: (Relevant for only Chemical
and Biochemical Fields)
For heterogeneous catalysis, presentation should include reaction
rates normalized by catalyst surface area, surface area of
the active phase, or number of active surface atoms or catalytic
sites, as appropriate. Typical rate units are mol s-1
m-2 or, in the case of surface
atom normalization to produce turnover frequencies, s-1. For
homogeneous catalysis, rates should typically be reported
as turnover frequencies. Comparisons of selectivities should
be made at similar conversions. Catalytic measurements need
to be carried out under kinetically limited conditions. Confirming
tests need to be carried out and reported, especially for
all reactions occurring in the liquid phase.
Symbols and Units: Greek symbols and
special characters often undergo formatting changes and get
corrupted or lost during preparation of a manuscript for publication.
To ensure that all special characters used are embedded in
the text, these special characters should be inserted as a
symbol but should not be a result of any format styling (Symbol
font face) otherwise they will be lost during conversion to
Authors are encouraged to consult reporting guidelines. These
guidelines provide a set of recommendations comprising a list
of items relevant to their specific research design.
Only ISO symbols, written in italic, should be used for the
various parameters. All kinds of measurements should be reported
only in International System of Units (SI). SI units should
always be written in roman and separated from the numerical
value by a space (whatever the language). The μ
or µm should be in roman. The symbol for liter is L
and that for minute is min. For temperatures, please note
the use of °C and °F but K. As the Ångström
(1 Å = 10-10 m) is
not an SI unit, it should be replaced by the nanometer (1
nm = 10-9 m) or by the picometer
(1 pm = 10-12m): 1 Å
= 0.1 nm = 100 pm. Multiple units should be written with negative
superscripts (for example, 25 mguL-1
The list of notations should appear just before the first
paragraph of full text.
A list of symbols and units should be provided if used extensively
throughout the text.
Equations and Mathematical Expressions:
1. Avoid the use of built-up fractions in the text. If not
avoided by the author(s), built-up fractions will be converted
to equivalent expressions on the line when the paper is copyedited.
In display matter, however, built-up fractions are preferred
2. Avoid the use of small-type mathematical expressions centered
above or below arrows. If possible, try to use an alternative
3. In the exponential function, avoid exponents having more
than one or two characters.
4. Avoid the use of reference numbers for equations that are
not subsequently referred to in the paper. Costs are reduced
if short mathematical equations and other expressions in the
text are run in (instead of each being displayed on a separate
line). Authors must expect that, when accepted papers are
copyedited, "excess" equation reference numbers
will be deleted and short equations will be run in with text.
5. Be sure to indicate special marking for symbols (e.g.,
italics, boldface) and clearly identify any unusual symbols.
Try to avoid underscored symbols because they often require
hand composition and opening up lines and thus are expensive.
In vector notations, indicate which letters or notations,
if any, may be set in boldface type. Indicate if asterisks
are to be set in superscript position or centered on the line.
6. All equations should be indented and numbered as follows:
7. Equation number should be right justified. Put three dots(...)
midway between the end of the equation and the equation number.
8. Punctuation should not be used at the end of an equation.
9. Particular care should be taken to distinguish between
the number zero (0) and the letter O; the number one (1) and
the letter l, the Roman letter v and the Greek letter nu (n).
The decimal logarithm should be written "log" and
the natural log "ln". The abbreviation of the exponential
function is a roman e (for example, ex
) or exp (for example, exp (u2
+ n)). In expressions of the type dxdt, the letter
d (derivative function) is always written in roman, whereas
the physical parameter (x or t) is always
in italics. Numbers are written in numerals when they are
followed by units, these being represented by their SI symbols
(10 % but a few percent).
10. In numerals, each group of three letters should be separated
by a space (except for dates and postal codes).
11. Authors should provide the equations in *TeX/LaTeX file
format separately as well as embedded in the manuscript.
Nomenclature: Nomenclature should conform
to current American usage. Insofar as possible, authors should
use systematic names similar to those used by Chemical Abstracts
Service or IUPAC. Chemical Abstracts (CA)
nomenclature rules are described in Appendix IV of the Chemical
Abstracts Index Guide.
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS: If abbreviations
are used in the text either they should be defined in the
text where first used, or a list of abbreviations can be provided.
GLOSSARY: A glossary of terms/expressions
used in the paper should be provided in the order of their
appearance in the article.
CONFLICT OF INTEREST: Financial contributions
to the work being reported should be clearly acknowledged,
as should any potential conflict of interest.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS: Please acknowledge anyone
(individual/company/institution) who has contributed to the
study by making substantial contributions to conception, design,
acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data,
or who was involved in drafting the manuscript or revising
it critically for important intellectual content. Please list
the source(s) of funding for the study, for each author, and
for the manuscript preparation in the acknowledgements section.
Authors are encouraged to call attention to safety considerations
such as explosive tendencies, special precautionary handling
procedures, toxicity, and special waste disposal procedures.
REFERENCES: References must be listed in
IEEE style only. All references should be numbered sequentially
[in square brackets] in the text and listed in the same numerical
order in the reference section. The reference numbers must
be finalized and the bibliography must be fully formatted
The author will be responsible for the accuracy and completeness
of the references.
See below few examples of references listed in the correct
1] G. Liu, K. Y. Lee, and H. F. Jordan, "TDM and TWDM
de Bruijn networks and shufflenets for optical communications",
IEEE Trans. Comp., vol. 46, pp. 695-701, June 1997.
 S. M. Hemmingsen, Soft Science. Saskatoon: University
of Saskatchewan Press, 1997.
 A. Rezi and M. Allam, "Techniques in array processing
by means of transformations," in Control and Dynamic
Systems, Vol. 69, Multidimensional Systems,
C. T. Leondes, Ed. San Diego: Academic Press, 1995, pp. 133-180.
 D. Sarunyagate, Ed., Lasers. New York: McGraw-Hill,
 N. Osifchin and G. Vau, “Power considerations for
the modernization of telecommunications in Central and Eastern
European and former Soviet Union (CCE/FSU) countries,”
in Second International Telecommunication Energy Special Conference
Special Conference, 1997, pp. 9-16.
 K. Kimura and A. Lipeles, "Fuzzy controller component",
U. S. Patent 14,860,040, December 14, 1996.
 H. Zhang, "Delay-insensitive networks", M.S.
thesis, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, Canada, 1997.
 L. Bass, P. Clements, and R. Kazman. Software Architecture
in Practice, 2nd ed. Reading, MA: Addison Wesley, 2003.
[E-book] Available: Safari e-book.
 P. H. C. Eilers and J. J. Goeman, "Enhancing
scatterplots with smoothed densities", Bioinformatics,
vol. 20, no. 5, pp. 623-628, March 2004. [Online]. Available:
www.oxfordjournals.org [Accessed Sept. 18, 2004].
 Citations for articles/material published exclusively
online or in open access (free-to-view), must contain the
exact Web addresses (URLs) at the end of the reference(s),
except those posted on an author’s Web site unless editorially
essential, e.g. ‘Reference: Available from: URL’.
Some important points to remember:
*All references must be complete and accurate.
*All authors must be cited and there should be no use of
the phrase et al (the term “et al.”
should be in italics).
*Online citations should include the date of access.
*Journal abbreviations should follow the Index Medicus/MEDLINE.
*Special care should be taken for the punctuation convention as described in the above-mentioned examples.
*The use of superscript in the in-text citations and reference section should be avoided.
*Abstracts, unpublished data and personal communications
(which can only be included if prior permission has been obtained)
should not be given in the reference section but they may
be mentioned in the text and details provided as footnotes.
*The authors are encouraged to use a recent version of EndNote
(version 5 and above) or Reference Manager (version 10) when
formatting their reference list, as this allows references
to be automatically extracted.
APPENDICES: In case there is a need to present lengthy, but essential methodological details, appendices must be used, which can be a part of the article. An appendix must not exceed
three pages (Times New Roman, 12 point fonts, 900 max. words
per page). The information should be provided in a condensed
form, ruling out the need of full sentences. A single appendix
should be titled APPENDIX, while more than one can be titled
APPENDIX A, APPENDIX B, and so on.
FIGURES/ILLUSTRATIONS: The authors should
provide the illustrations as separate files, as well as embedded
in the text file, numbered consecutively in the order of their
appearance. Each figure should include a single illustration.
No charges will be levied on the use of color figures except
in the reprints. Each figure should be closely cropped to
minimize the amount of white space surrounding the illustration.
If a figure consists of separate parts, it is important that
a single composite illustration file be submitted, containing
all parts of the figure.
Photographs should be provided with a scale bar if appropriate,
as well as high-resolution component files.
Scaling/Resolution: For Line Art image type, which is generally an image based
on lines and text and does not contain tonal or shaded areas,
the preferred file format is TIFF or EPS, with colour mode
being Monochrome 1-bit or RGB, in a resolution of 900-1200
For Halftone image type, which is generally a continuous tone photograph and contains no text, the preferred file format is TIFF, with colour mode being RGB or Grayscale, with a minimum resolution of 300 dpi.
For Combination image type, which is generally an image containing
halftone in addition to text or line art elements, the preferred
file format is TIFF, with colour mode being RGB or Grayscale,
in a resolution of 500-900 dpi.
For illustrations, the following file formats are acceptable:
• EPS (preferred format for diagrams)
• PDF (also especially suitable for
• PNG (preferred format for photos
• Microsoft Word (version 5 and above;
figures must be a single page)
• PowerPoint (figures must be a single
• JPEG (conversion should be done using
the original file)
• CDX (ChemDraw)
• TGF (ISISDraw)
Bentham OPEN Journal does not process figures submitted
in GIF format.
If the large size of TIFF or EPS figures acts as an obstacle
to online submission, authors may find that conversion to
JPEG format before submission results in significantly reduced
file size and upload time, while retaining acceptable quality.
JPEG is a ‘lossy’ format, however in order to maintain acceptable
image quality, it is recommended that JPEG files are saved
at High or Maximum quality.
Files should not be compressed with tools such as Zipit or
Stuffit prior to submission as these tools will in any case
produce negligible file-size savings for JPEGs and TIFFs,
which are already compressed.
Please do not:
1. Supply embedded graphics in your word processor (spreadsheet,
2. Supply files that are optimized for screen use (like GIF,
BMP, PICT, WPG); the resolution is too low;
3. Supply files that are too low in resolution;
4. Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for
Segments of computer programs or output are treated like
diagrams and are reproduced from good quality material provided
by author(s) (normal line printer output is not considered
Image Conversion Tools:
There are many software packages, many of them freeware or
shareware, capable of converting to and from different graphics
formats, including PNG.
Good general tools for image conversion include GraphicConverter
on the Macintosh, PaintShop Pro, for Windows, and ImageMagick,
which is available on Macintosh, Windows and UNIX platforms.
Note that bitmap images (e.g. screenshots) should not be converted
to EPS, since this will result in a much larger file size
than the equivalent JPEG, TIFF, PNG or BMP, with no increase
in the quality. EPS should only be used for images produced
by vector-drawing applications such as Adobe Illustrator or
CorelDraw. Most vector-drawing applications can be saved in,
or exported as, EPS format. In case the images have been originally
prepared in an Office application, such as Word or PowerPoint,
then the original Office files should be directly uploaded
to the site, instead of being converted to JPEG or another
format that may be of low quality.
Chemical Structures: Chemical structures must be prepared according to the guidelines below.
Structures should be prepared in ChemDraw and provided as separate file, submitted both on disk and in printed formats.
Structure Drawing Preferences:
[As according to the ACS style sheet]
Chain angle 120°
Bond spacing 18% of width
Fixed length 14.4 pt (0.500cm, 0.2in)
Bold width 2.0 pt (0.071cm, 0.0278in)
Line width 0.6 pt (0.021cm, 0.0084in)
Margin width 1.6 pt (0.096cm)
Hash spacing 2.5 pt (0.088cm, 0.0347in)
Font Times New Roman
Size 8 pt
Under the Preference Choose:
Tolerances 3 pixels
Under Page Setup Use:
Paper US letter
*Data Tables should be submitted in Microsoft Word table
*Each table should include a title/caption being explanatory
in itself with respect to the details discussed in the table.
Detailed legends may then follow.
*Table number in bold font i.e. Table 1,
should follow a title. The title should be in small case with
the first letter in caps. A full stop should be placed at
the end of the title.
*Tables should be embedded in the text exactly according
to their appropriate placement in the submitted manuscript.
*Columns and rows of data should be made visibly distinct
by ensuring that the borders of each cell are displayed as
*Tables should be numbered in Arabic numerals sequentially
in order of their citation in the body of the text.
*If a reference is cited in both the table and text, please
insert a lettered footnote in the table to refer to the numbered
reference in the text.
*Tabular data provided as additional files can be submitted
as an Excel spreadsheet.
SUPPORTIVE/SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL: We do
encourage to append supportive material, for example a PowerPoint
file containing a talk about the study, a PowerPoint file
containing additional screenshots, a Word, RTF, or PDF document
showing the original instrument(s) used, a video, or the original
data (SAS/SPSS files, Excel files, Access Db files etc.) provided
it is inevitable or endorsed by the journal's Editor.
Supportive/Supplementary Material intended for publication
must be numbered and referred to in the manuscript but should
not be a part of the submitted paper. In-text citations as
well as a section with the heading "Supportive/Supplementary
Material" before the "References" section should
be provided. Here, list all Supportive/Supplementary Material
and include a brief caption line for each file describing
Any additional files will be linked to the final published article in the form supplied by the author, but will not be
displayed within the paper. They will be made available in
exactly the same form as originally provided only on our Web
site. Please also make sure that each additional file is a
single table, figure or movie (please do not upload linked
worksheets or PDF files larger than one sheet). Supportive/Supplementary
material must be provided in a single zipped file not larger
than 4 MB.
Authors must clearly indicate if these files are not for
publication but meant for the reviewers'/editors' perusal
PERMISSION FOR REPRODUCTION: Published/reproduced
material should not be included unless you have obtained written
permission from the copyright holder, which should be forwarded
to the Editorial Office in case of acceptance of your article
For obtaining permission for reproducing any material published
in an article by Bentham Open, please fill in
the request FORM
and send to firstname.lastname@example.org
AUTHORS AND INSTITUTIONAL AFFILIATIONS:
The author will be required to provide their full names, the
institutional affiliations and the location, with an asterisk
in front of the name of the principal/corresponding author.
The corresponding author(s) should be designated and their
complete address, business telephone and fax numbers and e-mail
address must be stated to receive correspondence and galley
REVIEWING AND PROMPTNESS OF PUBLICATION:
All manuscripts submitted for publication will be immediately
subjected to peer-reviewing, usually in consultation with
the members of the Editorial Advisory Board and a number of
external referees. Authors may, however, provide in their
Covering Letter the contact details (including e-mail addresses)
of four potential peer reviewers for their paper. Any peer
reviewers suggested should not have recently published with
any of the authors of the submitted manuscript and should
not be members of the same research institution.
All peer-reviewing will be conducted via the Internet to facilitate
rapid reviewing of the submitted manuscripts. Every possible
effort will be made to assess the manuscripts quickly with
the decision being conveyed to the authors in due course.
LANGUAGE AND EDITING: Manuscripts submitted
containing many English typographical errors will not be published.
Manuscripts which are accepted for publication on condition
that the written English submitted is corrected, will be sent
a quote by Eureka Science, a professional language editing company. Authors
from non-English language countries who have poor English
language written skills, are advised to contact the language
editing company prior to submitting their manuscript to the
journal. Please contact Eureka Science for a language editing quote at e-mail: email@example.com
stating the total number of words of the article to be edited.
언어 및 편집: 영문 오타가 많은 원고는 출판되지 않을 것입니다. 영문 오타를 없애겠다는 조건으로 받은 원고는 영어 편집 전문회사인 유럽 공동 기술개발 기구로부터 가격 견적서가 보내 질 것입니다. 영어 작문에 어려움이 있는 비영어권 국가의 저자들은 원고를 학술지에 제출하기 전에 영어 편집회사와 접촉할 것을 권합니다. 영어 편집 견적서를 받기 위해서 교정될 원고의 단어수를 적은 메일을 유럽 공동 기술개발 기구 메일인 firstname.lastname@example.org 로 보내시기 바랍니다.
语言和编辑: 含有很多英文印刷错误的提交稿将不予发表。接受发表的稿件其英文写作应是正确的；专业的语言编辑公司（尤里卡科学，可对稿件的英文润色提供报价。建议非英语国家、且英文写作欠佳的作者在投稿前先与语言编辑公司联系。请与尤里卡科学联系 email@example.com
EDITION ET LANGUE: Les manuscrits soumis avec plusieurs erreurs typographiques en Anglais ne seront pas publiés en l’état. Les manuscrits sont acceptés pour publication à la condition que l'anglais utilisé soit corrigé après la soumission et seront envoyés pour examen à Eureka Science, une société d'édition de langue professionnelle. Les auteurs en provenance de pays où la langue est différente de l'anglais et qui ont de médiocres compétences en anglais écrit, sont priés de contacter la société d'édition de langue avant de soumettre leur manuscrit à la revue. Merci de contacter Eureka Science à firstname.lastname@example.org pour un devis en indiquant le nombre total de mot de l’article à éditer.
PROOF CORRECTIONS: Authors
are required to proofread the PDF versions of their manuscripts
before submission. To avoid delays in publication, proofs
should be checked immediately for typographical errors and
returned within 48 hours. Major changes are
not acceptable at the proof stage. If unable to send corrections
within 48 hours due to some reason, the author(s)
must at least send an acknowledgement on receiving the galley
proofs or the article will be published exactly as received
and the publishers will not be responsible for any error occurring
in the manuscript in this regard.
The corresponding author will be solely responsible for ensuring
that the revised version of the manuscript incorporating all
the submitted corrections receives the approval of all the
authors of the manuscript.
PLAGIARISM PREVENTION: Bentham Open uses the iThenticate software to detect instances of overlapping and similar text in submitted manuscripts. iThenticate software checks content against a database of periodicals, the Internet, and a comprehensive article database. It generates a similarity report, highlighting the percentage overlap between the uploaded article and the published material. Any instance of content overlap is further scrutinized for suspected plagiarism according to the publisher’s Editorial Policies. Bentham
OPEN allows an overall similarity of 20% for a manuscript to be considered for publication. The similarity percentage is further checked keeping the following important points in view:
Low Text Similarity: The text of every submitted manuscript is checked using the Content Tracking mode in iThenticate. The Content Tracking mode ensures that manuscripts with an overall low percentage similarity (but which may have a higher similarity from a single source) are not overlooked. The acceptable limit for similarity of text from a single source is 5%. If the similarity level is above 5%, the manuscript is returned to the author for paraphrasing the text and citing the original source of the copied material.
It is important to mention that the text taken from different sources with an overall low similarity percentage will be considered as a plagiarized content if the majority of the article is a combination of copied material.
High Text Similarity: There may be some manuscripts with an overall low similarity percentage, but a higher percentage from a single source. A manuscript may have less than 20% overall similarity but there may be 15 % similar text taken from a single article. The similarity index in such cases is higher than the approved limit for a single source. Authors are advised to thoroughly rephrase the similar text and properly cite the original source to avoid plagiarism and copyright violation.
TYPES OF PLAGIARISM: We all know that scholarly manuscripts are written after thorough review of previously published articles. It is therefore not easy to draw a clear boundary between legitimate representation and plagiarism. However, the following important features can assist in identifying different kinds of plagiarized content.
- Reproduction of others words, sentences, ideas or findings as one’s own without proper acknowledgement.
- Text recycling, also known as self-plagiarism. It is an author’s use of a previous publication in another paper without proper citation and acknowledgement of the original source.
- Paraphrasing poorly: Copying complete paragraphs and modifying a few words without changing the structure of original sentences or changing the sentence structure but not the words.
- Verbatim copying of text without putting quotation marks and not acknowledging the work of the original author.
- Properly citing a work but poorly paraphrasing the original text is considered as unintentional plagiarism. Similarly, manuscripts with language somewhere between paraphrasing and quoting are not acceptable. Authors should either paraphrase properly or quote and in both cases, cite the original source.
- Higher similarity in the abstract, introduction, materials and methods, and discussion and conclusion sections indicates that the manuscript may contain plagiarized text. Authors can easily explain these parts of the manuscript in many ways. However, technical terms and sometimes standard procedures cannot be rephrased; therefore Editors must review these sections carefully before making a decision.
PLAGIARISM IN PUBLISHED MANUSCRIPTS: Published manuscripts which are found to contain plagiarized text are retracted from the journal website after careful investigation and approval by the Editor-in-Chief of the journal. A ‘Retraction Note’ as well as a link to the original article is published on the electronic version of the plagiarized manuscript and an addendum with retraction notification in the journal concerned.
PUBLICATION FEES: The publication fee details
for each article published in the journal are given below:
Letters: The publication fee for each published
Letter article submitted is US $600.
Research Articles: The publication fee for
each published Research article is US $800.
Mini-Review Articles: The publication fee
for each published Mini-Review article is US $600.
Review Articles: The publication fee for
each published Review article is US $900.
The publication fee includes the professional copy editing charges. Once the paper is accepted for publication, the author will receive an electronic invoice via email.
Subsequent submissions from the Bentham Open Authors will receive a discount of US$ 100 on the total publication charges providing their previous submission did not avail any discount off the listed full author open access fee rate. Please click here to download the FeeForm.
Special Fee Waiver: Bentham OPEN allows Special FEE Waiver to authors from 79 countries which are classified by the World Bank as low-income economies or lower-middle-income economies as of September 2012 (reference - World Bank 1st September 2012). Refer to the complete list of these countries click here.
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REPRINTS: High quality printed reprints
of published articles are available for purchase, if ordered,
with a minimum number of 100 reprints.
1 The submission process
is compatible with version 3.0 or later of Internet Explorer
and Netscape Navigator, and with most other modern web browsers.
It can be used from PC, Mac, or Unix platforms.
2 In this connection, we
recommend the use of Microsoft Word version 2000 and above.