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Instructions for Authors

The Open Medical Education Journal is an open access online journal, which publishes original full length, short articles (letters), and reviews at all levels of undergraduate and postgraduate medical education. Topics covered include, teaching methods, curriculum development, assessment techniques, continuing education, health administration education, and telemedicine.

Manuscripts may be submitted directly to tomededuj@benthamopen.org. Each peer-reviewed article that is published in a Bentham OPEN Journal is universally and freely accessible via the Internet in an easily readable and printable PDF format.

ONLINE MANUSCRIPT SUBMISSION: An online submission and tracking service via Internet facilitates a speedy and cost-effective submission of manuscripts.1 The full manuscript has to be submitted online via Bentham's Content Management System (CMS) at http://www.bentham-editorial.org/ View Instructions

Alternatively, you may also submit your full manuscript by e-mail to tomededuj@benthamopen.org/

Manuscripts must be submitted by one of the authors of the manuscript and should not be submitted by anyone on their behalf. The principal/corresponding author will be required to submit a Covering Letter along with the manuscript, on behalf of all the co-authors (if any). The author(s) will confirm that the manuscript (or any part of it) has not been published previously or is not under consideration for publication elsewhere. Furthermore, any illustration, structure or table that has been published elsewhere must be reported, and copyright permission for reproduction must be obtained.

For all online submissions, please provide your complete manuscript in the form of a single zipped folder containing soft copies of all the materials (main text in MS Word or Tex/LaTeX), figures/illustrations in TIFF, PDF or JPEG, and chemical structures drawn in ChemDraw (CDX)/ISISDraw (TGF) as separate files, while a PDF version of the entire manuscript must also be included, embedded with all the figures/illustrations/table /chemical structures etc.

It is imperative that before submission, authors should carefully proofread the files for special characters, mathematical symbols, Greek letters, equations, tables and images, quantitative evidence and analysis, to ensure that they appear in proper format.

A successful electronic submission of a manuscript will be followed by a system-generated acknowledgement to the principal/corresponding author within 72 hours of the dispatch of the manuscript. Any questions with regards to the preparation of and submission of your manuscript to the journal should be addressed to tomededuj@benthamopen.org and copied to managingeditor@benthamopen.org 

NOTE: Any queries therein should be addressed to oa@benthamscience.org and copied to Jalil@benthamscience.org

Editorial Policies: The editorial policies of Bentham Science Publishers on publication ethics, peer-review, plagiarism, copyrights/ licenses, errata/corrections and article retraction/ withdrawal can be viewed at http://benthamscience.com/open/policy.htm

Manuscript Preparation: The manuscript should be written in English in a clear, direct and active style. All pages must be numbered sequentially, facilitating in the reviewing and editing of the manuscript.

For further convenience, the customer support team available at Eureka Science can provide assistance to authors for the preparation of manuscripts.

Manuscript Length:

Research Articles: The total number of words for a published research article is from 4000 to 8000 words.

Review Articles: The total number of words for a published comprehensive review article is from 8000 to 40000 words, and for mini-review articles from 3000 to 6000 words.

Letter Articles: The total number of words for a published letter/short communication article is from 3000 to 6000 words.

There is no restriction on the number of figures, tables or additional files e.g. video clips, animation and datasets, that can be included with each article online. Authors should include all relevant supporting data with each article.

There is no restriction on the number of figures, tables or additional files e.g. video clips, animation and datasets, that can be included with each article online. Authors should include all relevant supporting data with each article.

Manuscripts Published:
The journal accepts original research articles, letters and review articles written in English. Supplements, proceedings of conferences and open access book reviews may also be considered for publication.

Supplements/Single Topic Issues: The journal also considers Supplements/Single topic issues for publication. A Supplement/Single topic issue will be a collection of review articles (minimum of 6, maximum of 20 articles) based on a contemporary theme or topic of great importance to the field. Mini-supplements consisting of between 3 to 5 articles are also welcome. The Guest Editors' main editorial task is to invite the contributors to the Supplement and to manage the peer review of submitted manuscripts. A short summary or proposal for editing a supplement should be submitted to the Editor-in-Chief at e-mail to tomededuj@benthamopen.org with a copy to specialissue@benthamopen.org.

Conference Proceedings: For proposals to publish conference proceedings in this journal, please contact us at email: proceedings@benthamscience.org

Book Reviews: This journal publishes open access reviews on recently published books (both print and electronic) relevant to the journal. Publishers and authors of books are invited to contact our book reviews editor at tomededuj@benthamopen.org with book review requests. All submitted books will be reviewed by an independent expert in the field. No page charges will be levied to authors for the publication of book reviews.

MANUSCRIPT SECTIONS FOR PAPERS: Manuscripts for research articles and letters submitted to the respective journals should be divided into the following sections; however, there can be an extension in the number of sections in review articles in accordance with the requirements of the topic.

Covering letter
Title page
Abstract
Text organization
List of abbreviations (if any)
Glossary
Conflict of interest
Acknowledgements
References
Appendixes
Figures/illustrations (if any)
Chemical Structures (if any)
Tables and captions (if any)
Supportive/supplementary material (if any)

COVERING LETTER: It is a mandatory requirement that a signed covering letter also be submitted along with the manuscript by the author to whom correspondence is to be addressed, delineating the scope of the submitted article declaring the potential competing interests, acknowledging contributions from authors and funding agencies, and certifying that the paper is prepared according to the 'Instructions for Authors'. All inconsistencies in the text and in the reference section, and any typographical errors must be carefully checked and corrected before the submission of the manuscript. The article contains no such material or information that may be unlawful, defamatory, fabricated, plagiarized, or which would, if published, in any way whatsoever, violate the terms and conditions as laid down in the agreement. The authors acknowledge that the publishers have the legal right to take appropriate action against the authors for any such violation of the terms and conditions as laid down in the agreement. Download the Covering letter

TITLE: The title should be precise and brief and must not be more than 120 characters. Authors should avoid the use of non-standard abbreviations. The title must be written in title case except for articles, conjunctions and prepositions.

Authors should also provide a short ‘running title’.

ABSTRACT: The abstract should not exceed 250 words for review and research papers and should be limited to only 150 words for letters, summarizing the essential features of the article. The use of abbreviations should be reduced to a minimum and the references should not be cited in the abstract.

TEXT ORGANIZATION: The main text should begin on a separate page and should be divided into separate sections. For Research articles, the preparation of the main text must be structured into separate sections as Introduction, Materials and Methodology, Results, Discussion, and Conclusion. For Review and Letter articles, the manuscript should be divided into title page, abstract and the main text. The text may be subdivided further according to the areas to be discussed, which should be followed by the Acknowledgement (if any) and Reference sections. The review article should mention any previous important reviews in the field and contain a comprehensive discussion starting with the general background of the field. It should then go on to discuss the salient features of recent developments. The authors should avoid presenting material which has already been published in a previous review.

In case the manuscript contains quantitative evidence and analysis, the procedures should be described in sufficient detail for convenient evaluation. For instance, for surveys, at the least, sampling procedures, response rates, and question wordings should be given; the response rates should be calculated according to one of the standard formulas given by the American Association for Public Opinion Research, Standard Definitions: (www.aapor.org/standards.asp). Final Dispositions of Case Codes and Outcome Rates for Surveys (Lenexa, KS: AAPOR, 2006). For experiments, full descriptions of experimental protocols, methods of subject recruitment and selection, subject payments and debriefing procedures, and so on. should be provided and not just simply refer readers to other publications for descriptions of these basic research procedures.

The variables included in statistical analyses should be indicated by capitalizing the first letter in the variable name and italicizing the entire variable name the first time each it is mentioned in the text. The use of the names for variables should be consistent throughout i.e. in text, tables, and figures. Wherever possible, the use of acronyms and computer abbreviations when discussing variables in the text should be avoided. All variables appearing in tables and figures should be mentioned in the text and the reason for their inclusion discussed.

Ethical Approval of Studies and Informed Consent: For human or animal experimental investigations, it is a prerequisite to provide a formal review and approval, or review and waiver, by an appropriate institutional review board or Social Sciences committee and should be documented in your paper. For investigations undertaken on human subjects, state in the Methods section the manner in which the informed consent was obtained from the study participants (i.e, oral or written), where there is an unavoidable risk of breach of privacy- e.g., in a clinical photograph or in case details- the patient’s written consent or that of the next of kin, to publication must be obtained. We will ask you to send a signed consent form before publication. Consent must be obtained for all Case Reports and Clinical Pictures.

The authors are advised to present and discuss their observations in brief. The manuscript style must be uniform throughout the text and 10 pt Times New Roman fonts should be used. The full term for an abbreviation should precede its first appearance in the text unless it is a standard unit of measurement. The reference numbers should be given in square brackets in the text. Italics should be used for Binomial names of organisms (Genus and Species), for emphasis and for unfamiliar words or phrases. Non-assimilated words from Latin or other languages should also be italicized e.g. in vivo, in vitro, per se, et al. etc. Generic or clinical names should be used for all compounds. The species of any animals should be stated precisely. Materials and products should be identified in the text followed by the trade name in brackets.

Greek Symbols and Special Characters: Greek symbols and special characters often undergo formatting changes and get corrupted or lost during preparation of manuscript for publication. To ensure that all special characters used are embedded in the text, these special characters should be inserted as a symbol but should not be a result of any format styling (Symbol font face) otherwise they will be lost during conversion to PDF/XML2 .

Authors are encouraged to consult reporting guidelines. These guidelines provide a set of recommendations comprising a list of items relevant to their specific research design. All kinds of measurements should be reported only in International System of Units (SI). Chemical equations, chemical names, mathematical usage, unit of measurements, chemical and physical quantity & units must conform to SI and Chemical Abstracts or IUPAC.

All kinds of measurements should be reported only in International System of Units (SI).

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS: If abbreviations are used in the text either they should be defined in the text where first used, or a list of abbreviations can be provided.

GLOSSARY: A glossary of terms/expressions used in the paper should be provided in the order of their appearance in the article

CONFLICT OF INTEREST: Financial contributions to the work being reported should be clearly acknowledged, as should any potential conflict of interest.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS: Please acknowledge anyone (individual/company/institution) who has contributed to the study by making substantial contributions to conception, design, acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data, or who was involved in drafting the manuscript or revising it critically for important intellectual content. Please list the source(s) of funding for the study, for each author, and for the manuscript preparation in the acknowledgements section.

This journal complies with the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors' Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals http://www.icmje.org and the FDA's Good Reprint Practices for the Distribution of Medical Journal Articles and Medical or Scientific Reference Publications on Unapproved New Uses of Approved Drugs and Approved or Cleared Medical Devices http://www.fda.gov/oc/op/goodreprint.html

REFERENCES: References must be listed in the numerical system (Vancouver). All references should be numbered sequentially [in square brackets] in the text and listed in the same numerical order in the reference section. The reference numbers must be finalized and the bibliography must be fully formatted before submission.

See below few examples of references listed in the correct Vancouver style.

Journal Articles:
Zhao S. Chinese nationalism and its international orientations. Soc Sci Q 2000; 115: 1-33.

Klimoski R, Palmer S. The ADA and the hiring process in organizations. Consult Psychol J Pract Res 1993; 45(2): 10-36.

Book Reference:
Baddeley AD. Essentials of human memory. Hove, England: Psychology Press 1999.

Edited book:
Gibbs JT, Huang LN, Eds. Children of color: Psychological interventions with minority youth. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass 1991.

Typical Chapter Reference:
Massaro D. Broadening the domain of the fuzzy logical model of perception. In: Pick HL, Jr., van den Broek P, Knill DC, Eds. Cognition: Conceptual and methodological issues, American Psychological Association 1992; pp. 51-84.

Technical and Research Reports:
Lugg DJ. Physiological adaptation and health of an expedition in Antarctica: with comment on behavioural adaptation. Canberra: A.G.P.S.; 1977. Australian Government Department of Science, Antarctic Division. ANARE scientific reports. Series B(4), Medical science No. 0126.

Government report:
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Pressure ulcers in adults: Prediction and prevention (AHCPR Publication No. 92-0047). Rockville, MD: Author, 1992.

Government report, GPO Publisher:
National Institute of Mental Health. Clinical training in serious mental illness (DHHS Publication No. ADM 90-1679). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1990.

Article in an Internet-only journal:
Fredrickson BL. Cultivating positive emotions to optimize health and well-being. Prevent Treat 2000, Mar 7 [3, Article 0001a. Retrieved 2000 Nov 20]. Available from: http://journals.apa.org/prevention/volume3/pre0030001a.html

Website:
Goldberg I. Dr. Ivan's depression central [Online]. 2000 Nov 21, [cited 2001]. Available from: http://www.psycom.net/depression.central.html.

Conference
Bickman L, Ellis H, Eds. Preparing psychologists for the 21st century: Proceedings of the National Conference on Graduate Education in Psychology; 1988, University of Utah. Hillsdale, NJ: L. Erlbaum; 1990.

Thesis or dissertation:
Borkowski MM. Infant sleep and feeding: a telephone survey of Hispanic Americans. PhD [dissertation]. Mount Pleasant (MI): Central Micihigan University; 2002.

Patent:
Pagedas AC, inventor; Ancel Surgical R&D Inc., assignee. Flexible endoscopic grasping and cutting device and positioning tool assembly. United States patent US 20020103498. 2002 Aug 1.

E-citations:
Citations for articles/material published exclusively online or in open access (free-to-view) , must contain the exact Web addresses (URLs) at the end of the reference(s), except those posted on an author’s Web site unless editorially essential, e.g. ‘Reference: Available from: URL’.

Some important points to remember:

*All references must be complete and accurate.
*If the number of authors exceeds six then et al. will be used after three names (the term “et al.” should be in italics).
*Online citations should include the date of access.
*Journal abbreviations should follow the Index Medicus/MEDLINE.
*Take special care of the punctuation convention as described in the above-mentioned examples.
*Avoid using superscript in the in-text citations and reference section.
*Abstracts, unpublished data and personal communications (which can only be included if prior permission has been obtained) should not be given in the reference section but they may be mentioned in the text and details provided as footnotes.
*The authors are encouraged to use a recent version of EndNote (version 5 and above) or Reference Manager (version 10) when formatting their reference list, as this allows references to be automatically extracted.

APPENDIXES: In case there is a need to present lengthy, but essential methodological details, use appendixes, which can be a part of the article. An appendix must not exceed three pages (Times New Roman, 12 point fonts, 900 max. words per page).The information should be provided in a condensed form, ruling out the need of full sentences. A single appendix should be titled APPENDIX, while more than one can be titled APPENDIX A, APPENDIX B, and so on.

FIGURES/ILLUSTRATIONS: The authors should provide the illustrations as separate files, as well as embedded in the text file, numbered consecutively in the order of their appearance. Each figure should include a single illustration. No charges will be levied on the use of color figures except in the reprints. Each figure should be closely cropped to minimize the amount of white space surrounding the illustration.

If a figure consists of separate parts, it is important that a single composite illustration file be submitted, containing all parts of the figure.

Photographs should be provided with a scale bar if appropriate, as well as high-resolution component files.

Scaling/Resolution

For Line Art image type, which is generally an image based on lines and text and does not contain tonal or shaded areas, the preferred file format is TIFF or EPS, with colour mode being Monochrome 1-bit or RGB, in a resolution of 900-1200 dpi.

For Halftone image type, which is generally a continuous tone photograph and contains no text, the preferred file format is TIFF, with colour mode being or RGB or Grayscale, with a minimum resolution of 300 dpi.

For Combination image type, which is generally an image containing halftone in addition to text or line art elements, the preferred file format is TIFF, with colour mode being or RGB or Grayscale, in a resolution of 500-900 dpi.

Formats

For illustrations, the following file formats are acceptable:

Illustrator
EPS (preferred format for diagrams)
PDF (also especially suitable for diagrams)
PNG (preferred format for photos or images)
Microsoft Word (version 5 and above; figures must be a single page)
PowerPoint (figures must be a single page)
TIFF
JPEG (conversion should be done using the original file)
BMP

Bentham OPEN does not process figures submitted in GIF format.

If the large size of TIFF or EPS figures acts as an obstacle to online submission, authors may find that conversion to JPEG format before submission results in significantly reduced file size and upload time, while retaining acceptable quality. JPEG is a 'lossy' format, however. In order to maintain acceptable image quality, it is recommended that JPEG files are saved at High or Maximum quality.

Files should not be compressed with tools such as Zipit or Stuffit prior to submission as these tools will in any case produce negligible file-size savings for JPEGs and TIFFs, which are already compressed.

Please do not:

1. Supply embedded graphics in your word processor (spreadsheet, presentation) document;
2. Supply files that are optimized for screen use (like GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG); the resolution is too low;
3. Supply files that are too low in resolution;
4. Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.


Segments of computer programs or output are treated like diagrams and are reproduced from good quality material provided by author(s) (normal line printer output is not considered good quality).

Image Conversion Tools

There are many software packages, many of them freeware or shareware, capable of converting to and from different graphics formats, including PNG.

Good general tools for image conversion include GraphicConverter on the Macintosh, PaintShop Pro, for Windows, and ImageMagick, which is available on Macintosh, Windows and UNIX platforms.

Note that bitmap images (e.g. screenshots) should not be converted to EPS, since this will result in a much larger file size than the equivalent JPEG, TIFF, PNG or BMP, with no increase in the quality. EPS should only be used for images produced by vector-drawing applications such as Adobe Illustrator or CorelDraw. Most vector-drawing applications can be saved in, or exported as, EPS format. In case the images have been originally prepared in an Office application, such as Word or PowerPoint, then the original Office files should be directly uploaded to the site, instead of being converted to JPEG or another format that may be of low quality.

TABLES:

*Data Tables should be submitted in Microsoft Word table format.
*Each table should include a title/caption being explanatory in itself with respect to the details discussed in the table. Detailed legends may then follow.
*Table number in bold font i.e. Table 1, should follow a title. The title should be in small case with the first letter in caps. A full stop should be placed at the end of the title.
*Tables should be embedded in the text exactly according to their appropriate placement in the submitted manuscript.
*Columns and rows of data should be made visibly distinct by ensuring that the borders of each cell are displayed as black lines.
*Tables should be numbered in Arabic numerals sequentially in order of their citation in the body of the text.
*If a reference is cited in both the table and text, please insert a lettered footnote in the table to refer to the numbered reference in the text.
*Tabular data provided as additional files can be submitted as an Excel spreadsheet.

SUPPORTIVE/SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL: We do encourage to append supportive material, for example a PowerPoint file containing a talk about the study, a PowerPoint file containing additional screenshots, a Word, RTF, or PDF document showing the original instrument(s) used, a video, or the original data (SAS/SPSS files, Excel files, Access Db files etc.) provided it is inevitable or endorsed by the journal's Editor.

Published/reproduced material should not be included unless you have obtained written permission from the copyright holder, which must be forwarded to the Editorial Office in case of acceptance of your article for publication.

Supportive/Supplementary material intended for publication must be numbered and referred to in the manuscript but should not be a part of the submitted paper. In-text citations as well as a section with the heading "Supportive/Supplementary Material" before the "References" section should be provided. Here, list all Supportive/Supplementary Material and include a brief caption line for each file describing its contents.

Any additional files will be linked into the final published article in the form supplied by the author, but will not be displayed within the paper. They will be made available in exactly the same form as originally provided only on our Web site. Please also make sure that each additional file is a single table, figure or movie (please do not upload linked worksheets or PDF files larger than one sheet). Supportive/Supplementary material must be provided in a single zipped file not larger than 4 MB.

Authors must clearly indicate if these files are not for publication but meant for the reviewers'/editors' perusal only.

PERMISSION FOR REPRODUCTION: Published/reproduced material should not be included unless you have obtained written permission from the copyright holder, which should be forwarded to the Editorial Office in case of acceptance of your article for publication.

For obtaining permission for reproducing any material published in an article by Bentham Science Publishers, please fill in the request FORM and send to tomededuj@benthamopen.org for consideration.

AUTHORS AND INSTITUTIONAL AFFILIATIONS: The author will be required to provide their full names, the institutional affiliations and the location, with an asterisk in front of the name of the principal/corresponding author. The corresponding author(s) should be designated and their complete address, business telephone and fax numbers and e-mail address must be stated to receive correspondence and galley proofs.

REVIEWING AND PROMPTNESS OF PUBLICATION: All manuscripts submitted for publication will be immediately subjected to peer-reviewing, usually in consultation with the members of the Editorial Advisory Board and a number of external referees. Authors may, however, provide in their Covering Letter the contact details (including e-mail addresses) of four potential peer reviewers for their paper. Any peer reviewers suggested should not have recently published with any of the authors of the submitted manuscript and should not be members of the same research institution.

All peer-reviewing will be conducted via the Internet to facilitate rapid reviewing of the submitted manuscripts. Every possible effort will be made to assess the manuscripts quickly with the decision being conveyed to the authors in due course. Papers which are delayed by authors in revision for more than 30 days will have to be re-submitted as a new submission.

LANGUAGE AND EDITING: Manuscripts submitted containing many English typographical errors will not be published. Manuscripts which are accepted for publication on condition that the written English submitted is corrected, will be sent a quote by Eureka Science, a professional language editing company. Authors from non-English language countries who have poor English language written skills, are advised to contact the language editing company prior to submitting their manuscript to the journal. Please contact Eureka Science for a language editing quote at e-mail: info@eureka-science.com stating the total number of words of the article to be edited.

언어 및 편집: 영문 오타가 많은 원고는 출판되지 않을 것입니다. 영문 오타를 없애겠다는 조건으로 받은 원고는 영어 편집 전문회사인 유럽 공동 기술개발 기구로부터 가격 견적서가 보내 질 것입니다. 영어 작문에 어려움이 있는 비영어권 국가의 저자들은 원고를 학술지에 제출하기 전에 영어 편집회사와 접촉할 것을 권합니다. 영어 편집 견적서를 받기 위해서 교정될 원고의 단어수를 적은 메일을 유럽 공동 기술개발 기구 메일인 info@eureka-science.com 로 보내시기 바랍니다.

语言和编辑: 含有很多英文印刷错误的提交稿将不予发表。接受发表的稿件其英文写作应是正确的;专业的语言编辑公司(尤里卡科学,可对稿件的英文润色提供报价。建议非英语国家、且英文写作欠佳的作者在投稿前先与语言编辑公司联系。请与尤里卡科学联系 info@eureka-science.com

EDITION ET LANGUE: Les manuscrits soumis avec plusieurs erreurs typographiques en Anglais ne seront pas publiés en l’état. Les manuscrits sont acceptés pour publication à la condition que l'anglais utilisé soit corrigé après la soumission et seront envoyés pour examen à Eureka Science, une société d'édition de langue professionnelle. Les auteurs en provenance de pays où la langue est différente de l'anglais et qui ont de médiocres compétences en anglais écrit, sont priés de contacter la société d'édition de langue avant de soumettre leur manuscrit à la revue. Merci de contacter Eureka Science à info@eureka-science.com pour un devis en indiquant le nombre total de mot de l’article à éditer.

PROOF CORRECTIONS: Authors are required to proofread the PDF versions of their manuscripts before submission. To avoid delays in publication, proofs should be checked immediately for typographical errors and returned within 48 hours. Major changes are not acceptable at the proof stage. If unable to send corrections within 48 hours due to some reason, the author(s) must at least send an acknowledgement on receiving the galley proofs or the article will be published exactly as received and the publishers will not be responsible for any error occurring in the manuscript in this regard.

The corresponding author will be solely responsible for ensuring that the revised version of the manuscript incorporating all the submitted corrections receives the approval of all the authors of the manuscript.

COPYRIGHT: Authors who publish in Bentham OPEN Journals retain copyright to their work. Submission of a manuscript to the respective journals implies that all authors have read and agreed to the content of the Covering Letter or the Terms and Conditions. It is a condition of publication that manuscripts submitted to this journal have not been published and will not be simultaneously submitted or published elsewhere. Plagiarism is strictly forbidden, and by submitting the article for publication the authors agree that the publishers have the legal right to take appropriate action against the authors, if plagiarism or fabricated information is discovered. Once submitted to the journal, the author will not withdraw their manuscript at any stage prior to publication.

Articles are licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution non-commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/) which permits unrestricted, non-commercial use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, providing that the work is properly cited.

PLAGIARISM PREVENTION: Bentham Science Publishers uses the iThenticate software to detect instances of overlapping and similar text in submitted manuscripts. iThenticate software checks content against a database of periodicals, the Internet, and a comprehensive article database. It generates a similarity report, highlighting the percentage overlap between the uploaded article and the published material. Any instance of content overlap is further scrutinized for suspected plagiarism according to the publisher’s Editorial Policies. Bentham Science allows an overall similarity of 20% for a manuscript to be considered for publication. The similarity percentage is further checked keeping the following important points in view:

Low Text Similarity: The text of every submitted manuscript is checked using the Content Tracking mode in iThenticate. The Content Tracking mode ensures that manuscripts with an overall low percentage similarity (but which may have a higher similarity from a single source) are not overlooked. The acceptable limit for similarity of text from a single source is 5%. If the similarity level is above 5%, the manuscript is returned to the author for paraphrasing the text and citing the original source of the copied material.

It is important to mention that the text taken from different sources with an overall low similarity percentage will be considered as a plagiarized content if the majority of the article is a combination of copied material. 

High Text Similarity: There may be some manuscripts with an overall low similarity percentage, but a higher percentage from a single source. A manuscript may have less than 20% overall similarity but there may be 15 % similar text taken from a single article. The similarity index in such cases is higher than the approved limit for a single source. Authors are advised to thoroughly rephrase the similar text and properly cite the original source to avoid plagiarism and copyright violation. 

TYPES OF PLAGIARISM: We all know that scholarly manuscripts are written after thorough review of previously published articles. It is therefore not easy to draw a clear boundary between legitimate representation and plagiarism. However, the following important features can assist in identifying different kinds of plagiarized content.

These are:

- Reproduction of others words, sentences, ideas or findings as one’s own without proper acknowledgement.
- Text recycling, also known as self-plagiarism. It is an author’s use of a previous publication in another paper without proper citation and acknowledgement of the original source.
- Paraphrasing poorly: Copying complete paragraphs and modifying a few words without changing the structure of original sentences or changing the sentence structure but not the words.
- Verbatim copying of text without putting quotation marks and not acknowledging the work of the original author.
- Properly citing a work but poorly paraphrasing the original text is considered as unintentional plagiarism. Similarly, manuscripts with language somewhere between paraphrasing and quoting are not acceptable. Authors  should either paraphrase properly or quote and in both cases, cite the original source.
- Higher similarity in the abstract, introduction, materials and methods, and discussion and conclusion sections indicates that the manuscript may contain plagiarized text. Authors can easily explain these parts of the manuscript in many ways. However, technical terms and sometimes standard procedures cannot be rephrased; therefore Editors must review these sections carefully before making a decision.

PLAGIARISM IN PUBLISHED MANUSCRIPTS: Published manuscripts which are found to contain plagiarized text are retracted from the journal website after careful investigation and approval by the Editor-in-Chief of the journal. A ‘Retraction Note’ as well as a link to the original article is published on the electronic version of the plagiarized manuscript and an addendum with retraction notification in the journal concerned.

PUBLICATION FEES:The publication fee details for each article published in the journal are given below:

Letters: The publication fee for each published Letter article submitted is US $600.

Research Articles:
The publication fee for each published Research article is US $800.

Mini-Review Articles:
The publication fee for each published Mini-Review article is US $600.

Review Articles:
The publication fee for each published Review article is US $900.

The publication fee includes the professional copy editing charges. Once the paper is accepted for publication, the author will receive by email an electronic invoice. The fee form is also available on the Web site at www.benthamscience.com/open/feeform

Special Fee Waiver: Bentham OPEN allows Special FEE Waiver to authors from 79 countries which are classified by the World Bank as low-income economies or lower-middle-income economies as of September 2012 (reference - World Bank 1st September 2012). Refer to the complete list of these countries at http://www.benthamscience.com/open/specialOffer.htm

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