Open Chemistry Journal


ISSN: 1874-8422 ― Volume 8, 2021

Magnetic Properties of One- and Two-Dimensional Functional Materials: Oxygen Molecules Encapsulated in Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes and Copper Ions Embedded into Phthalocyanine Sheets

Masayuki Hagiwara1, *, Takanori Kida1, Kazuyuki Matsuda2, Haruka Kyakuno2, Yutaka Maniwa3, Zentaro Honda4, Yuya Sakaguchi4, Makoto Tashiro4, Masamichi Sakai4, Takeshi Fukuda4, Norihiko Kamata4, Kouichi Okunishi5
1 Center for Advanced High Magnetic Field Science, Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043, Japan
2 Faculty of Engineering,Institute of Physics, Kanagawa University, Yokohama 221-8686, Japan
3 Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Hachioji 192-0397 , Japan
4 Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Saitama University, 255 Shimo-Okubo, Sakura-ku, Saitama 338-8570, Japan
5 Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Niigata University, Niigata 950-2181, Japan



In this paper, we report on the topics of one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) functional materials. Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (SWCNTs) are seamless hollow cylinders made of hexagonal lattice graphite sheets. The SWCNTs have attracted considerable attention due to the applicability of their enclosed nanospaces to engineering, and many types of guest materials are encapsulated inside their 1D space, expecting unusual properties. The poly Transition Metal (TM) phthalocyanine, in which phthalocyanine units are extended in two dimensions by sharing benzene rings, is one of the examples of the TM containing 2D carbon materials. Because of strong correlation between localized d-electrons in the TM atom and delocalized π-electrons on the poly phthalocyanine frame, it is expected that spin-polarized conduction, which is useful for the spintronic applications.


The objective of the first work is to synthesize SWCNTs encapsulating oxygen molecules having spin one, whose O-O bond directions are aligned to the longitudinal direction of the SWCNTs. The objective of the second work is to synthesize Poly Cu Phthalocyanine (PCuPc) through a bottom-up method by using copper octacyanophthalocyanine as a building block and to elucidate its crystal structure and magnetic properties.


SWCNTs with inner diameter of ca 0.8 nm were prepared by the CoMoCAT method, and encapsulated together with oxygen molecules (~400 Torr) into a high-purity quartz tube. To subtract the background signals of the SWCNTs and the quartz tube, we prepared the same SWCNTs inducing He gas after evacuating oxygen molecules. Magnetization measurements of these SWCNTs samples were conducted by means of a SQUID magnetometer and a pulse magnet using an induction method. PCuPc were synthesized by a solid state reaction of octacyanophthalocyanine, tetracyanobenzene, and CuCl2·2H2O in glass ampoules sealed after evacuation. The as-synthesized samples were characterized using XRD analysis and TEM microscopy. Magnetization measurement of the samples were done by using a SQUID magnetometer.


The intrinsic magnetization data from oxygen molecules inside the SWCNTs (temperature and magnetic field dependence) show magnetic properties typical of the spin-one Heisenberg antiferromagnet named a Haldane magnet. PCuPc and its half-filling counterpart were obtained by solid state reaction. Both magnetic susceptibility and magnetization of PCuPc are larger than those of half-filling PCuPc, but the magnitudes of the former sample are about 1.5 times larger than those of the latter one, which is expected to be twice from the geometric superlattice structure.


We have studied magnetic properties (magnetic susceptibility and magnetization) of oxygen molecules encapsulated into Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes (SWCNTs) with diameters of about 0.8 nm, regarded as a 1D functional magnetic material, and Poly Copper Phthalocyanine (PCuPc) and poly half-filling copper phthalocyanine (half-filling PCuPc), regarded as 2D functional magnetic materials.

Keywords: Oxygen molecules, Single-walled carbon nanotubes, Magnetic susceptibility, High-field magnetization, Copper phthalocianine, Half-filling.

Article Information

Identifiers and Pagination:

Year: 2019
Volume: 6
Issue: Suppl-1, M4
First Page: 27
Last Page: 33
Publisher Id: CHEM-6-27
DOI: 10.2174/1874842201906010027

Article History:

Received Date: 13/01/2018
Revision Received Date: 03/03/2018
Acceptance Date: 02/02/2019
Electronic publication date: 22/03/2019
Collection year: 2019

© 2019 Hagiwara et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: ( This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Center for Advanced High Magnetic Field Science, Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043, Japan; Tel: +81-6-6850-6685; E-mails:

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