A large number of African cities are characterized by the constant presence of livestock. Khartoum (Sudan), Addis Ababa (Ethiopia), Dar es Salaam (Tanzania), Dakar (Senegal), Banjul (The Gambia) and Accra (Ghana) can be considered as examples of the variety of species of livestock contributions to urban economies and to livelihoods. Cattle, sheep and goats provide meat and milk, pigs provide meat and poultry provide meat and eggs. Donkeys import firewood and food is horses pull taxies. Food producing animals, in addition to their output used for home consumption, make considerable cash contributions to household income when their products are sold. Animals in urban areas are, however, a source of conflict and of pollution and may be reservoirs of diseases including zoonoses. This paper provides a series of illustrated case studies relating to many aspects of urban livestock and lists some activities that could be undertaken by municipalities to improve urban production systems.
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