The Open AIDS Journal

ISSN: 1874-6136 ― Volume 11, 2017

Associations and Trends in Cause-Specific Rates of Death Among Persons Reported with HIV Infection, 23 U.S. Jurisdictions, Through 2011

William K. Adih*, 1, Richard M. Selik1, H. Irene Hall1, Aruna Surendera Babu2, Ruiguang Song1
1 Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention - National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
2 ICF International, Atlanta, Georgia, USA



Published death rates for persons with HIV have not distinguished deaths due to HIV from deaths due to other causes. Cause-specific death rates would allow better assessment of care needs.


Using data reported to the US national HIV surveillance system, we examined a) associations between selected decedent characteristics and causes of death during 2007-2011, b) trends in rates of death due to underlying causes among persons with AIDS during 1990-2011, and among all persons with diagnosed HIV infection (with or without AIDS) during 2000-2011.


During 2007-2011, non-HIV-attributable causes of death with the highest rates per 1,000 person-years were heart disease (2.0), non-AIDS cancers other than lung cancer (1.4), and accidents (0.8). During 1990-2011, among persons with AIDS, the annual rate of death due to HIV-attributable causes decreased by 89% (from 122.0 to 13.2), and the rate due to non-HIV-attributable-causes decreased by 57% (from 20.0 to 8.6), while the percentage of deaths caused by non-HIV-attributable causes increased from 11% to 43%. During 2000-2011, among persons with HIV infection, the rate of death due to HIV-attributable causes decreased by 69% (from 26.4 to 8.3), and the rate due to non-HIV-attributable causes decreased by 28% (from 10.5 to 7.6), while the percentage of deaths caused by non-HIV-attributable causes increased from 25% to 48%.


Among HIV-infected persons, as rates of death due to HIV-attributable causes decreased, rates due to non-HIV-attributable causes also decreased, but the percentages of deaths due to non-HIV-attributable causes, such as heart disease and non-AIDS cancers increased.

Keywords: AIDS, Associations, HIV-attributable causes of death, Non- HIV-attributable causes of death, Rate ratio, Trends, US national HIV surveillance system.

Article Information

Identifiers and Pagination:

Year: 2016
Volume: 10
First Page: 144
Last Page: 157
Publisher Id: TOAIDJ-10-144
DOI: 10.2174/1874613601610010144

Article History:

Received Date: 18/03/2016
Revision Received Date: 25/05/2016
Acceptance Date: 27/05/2016
Electronic publication date: 29/07/2016
Collection year: 2016

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© Adih et al.; Licensee Bentham Open.

open-access license: This is an open access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non-Commercial 4.0 International Public License (CC BY-NC 4.0) (, which permits unrestricted, non-commercial use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the work is properly cited.

* Address correspondence to this author at Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Road, Mailstop E-47, Atlanta, GA 30329-4027 Georgia, USA; Tel: (404)-639-5382; Fax: (404)-639-2980; Email:


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