The Open AIDS Journal

ISSN: ― Volume ,

Clinical Assessment of Nutritional and Metabolic Status in HIV Outpatients

Karl Emerole1, *, Galina Kozhevnikova1, Vasily Isakov2, Sergey Voznesenskiy1, Vladislav Konnov1, Vladimir Pilipenko2, Veniamin Golub1, Nadezda Polovinkina1, Irina Barysheva1, Tatiana Kharlamova1, Danila Konnov1
1 Department of Infectious Diseases, Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia (RUDN University), Moscow, Russia.
2 Department of Gastroenterology, Scientific Research Institute of Nutrition, Moscow, Russia.



After the World Health Organization’s first technical consultation on Nutrient Requirements for People Living with HIV/AIDS in Geneva, 2003, a lot of research questions that are considered crucial for enhancing our understanding of the interaction of nutrition and HIV infection were raised and until this moment, left unanswered. To gain a better understanding of HIV and nutrition, we implemented a comprehensive approach. The aim of our study was to assess the nutritional and metabolic status in order to enhance the provision of medical care to people living with HIV.


45 HIV patients and 32 healthy volunteers were enrolled in the study. Within the HIV group, 32 (71%) were male and 13 (29%) female. Only 7 (15%) were ART naïve. Overall their median age, CD4 count and viral load were 30 years (IQR: 28-40), 407 (IQR: 357-490) cells/mm3 and 500 (IQR: 0-1000) copies/ml, respectively. None of the participants in the HIV group had any active infection. Food intake by monthly dietary recall was determined. Body composition was measured using bioelectrical impedance analysis. The selected biochemical parameters were evaluated and the resting metabolic rates were calculated using indirect calorimetry to accurately understand the metabolism of participants.


Participants in the HIV group did not meet the recommended daily allowance level (RDA) of carbohydrate requirements. The fat-free mass significantly decreased in the HIV group (P < 0.05). Resting energy expenditure was excessive in the HIV group compared to the control group (P < 0.05). Values of urea nitrogen concentration, fat and protein oxidation rates in the HIV group significantly increased (P < 0.01). The carbohydrate oxidation in the HIV group significantly decreased (P < 0.01)


The study reveals a catabolic status in the HIV group and suggests an adjustment in the nutrient RDA to compensate such status. Further investigation should be extended to vulnerable population group particularly children.

Keywords: Bioelectrical impedance, HIV infection, Indirect calorimetry, Metabolism, Nutritional status, Resting energy expenditure.

Article Information

Identifiers and Pagination:

Year: 2020
Volume: 14
First Page: 11
Last Page: 15
Publisher Id: TOAIDJ-14-11
DOI: 10.2174/1874613602014010011

Article History:

Received Date: 20/11/2019
Revision Received Date: 02/02/2020
Acceptance Date: 05/02/2020
Electronic publication date: 20/03/2020
Collection year: 2020

© 2020 Emerole Karl et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Infectious Diseases, Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia (RUDN University), Infectious Diseases, Moscow, Russia; Email:

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