The Open Agriculture Journal




ISSN: 1874-3315 ― Volume 13, 2019
RESEARCH ARTICLE

Molecular Epidemiology of Streptococcus equi subsp.zooepidemicus Isolated from Thoroughbred Horses Using Multi Locus Sequence Typing (MLST) in Korea



Seong-Kyoon Choi1, Chul-Song Park2, Gil-Jae Cho2, *
1 Division of NanoBio Technology, Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology, 333, Technojungang-daero, Hyeonpung-eup, Dalseong-gun, Daegu 42988, South Korea
2 College of Veterinary Medicine and Institute of Equine Medicine, Kyungpook National University, 80, Daehak-ro, Buk-gu, Daegu 41566, South Korea

Abstract

Background:

Multi Locus Sequence Typing (MLST) is a new global molecular typing method used for analyzing the DNA polymorphisms in bacteria. In this study, using MLST, we analyzed the sequence profiles of Streptococcus (S.) zooepidemicus isolates from the Jeju and Jangsu provinces in South Korea.

Objective:

This study characterized the molecular epidemiology of S. zooepidemicus infection in Thoroughbred horses using MLST with an aim to control and prevent bacterial endometritis in mares.

Methods:

A total of 79 S. zooepidemicus isolates were included in this study. Sequencing of the 7 loci for the MLST analysis was performed as described in the MLST website manual (http:// pubmlst.org/szooepidemicus/) with some modifications. For each locus, every unique sequence was assigned a distinct allele number, and each Sequence Type (ST) was defined by a series of 7 integers (the allelic profile) corresponding to the alleles at the 7 loci (arcC, nrdE, proS, spi, tdk, tpi, and yqiL) using the MLST module in the Main Workbench.

Results:

Among the 79 isolates, 73 different MLST patterns were identified, each corresponding to 1-3 strains. The genetic relationships between the 79 isolates are presented in a dendrogram, and they diverged by up to 11% homology. At 11% homology, three MLST groups, M1, M2, and M3, were identified, and at 26% homology, five subgroups, L1-L5, were observed.

We observed various MLST patterns in the strains isolated from Jeju and Jangsu. In addition, by estimating the epidemiological relationships among the strains isolated from Jangsu in 2007 and Jeju in 2009, which had similar MLST patterns, we determined that some strains from Jangsu may have been transported to Jeju.

Conclusion:

MLST can be used as a framework for determining the epidemiological relationships that form the genetic basis of host and infection site selection.

Keywords: MLST, Streptococcus zooepidemicus, South Korea, Thoroughbred horse, Molecular epidemiology, Endometritis in mares.


Article Information


Identifiers and Pagination:

Year: 2019
Volume: 13
First Page: 67
Last Page: 73
Publisher Id: TOASJ-13-67
DOI: 10.2174/1874331501913010067

Article History:

Received Date: 09/01/2019
Revision Received Date: 16/03/2019
Acceptance Date: 26/03/2019
Electronic publication date: 31/05/2019
Collection year: 2019

Article Metrics:

CrossRef Citations:
0

Total Statistics:

Full-Text HTML Views: 868
Abstract HTML Views: 555
PDF Downloads: 293
ePub Downloads: 202
Total Views/Downloads: 1918

Unique Statistics:

Full-Text HTML Views: 507
Abstract HTML Views: 299
PDF Downloads: 197
ePub Downloads: 129
Total Views/Downloads: 1132
Geographical View

© 2019 Choi et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode). This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


* Address correspondence to this author at the College of Veterinary Medicine and Institute of Equine Medicine, Kyungpook National University, 80, Daehakro, Buk-gu, Daegu 41566, South Korea; Tel: +82-53-950-5978; Fax: +82 -53-950-5955; E-mail: chogj@knu.ac.kr



Endorsements



"Open access will revolutionize 21st century knowledge work and accelerate the diffusion of ideas and evidence that support just in time learning and the evolution of thinking in a number of disciplines."


Daniel Pesut
(Indiana University School of Nursing, USA)

"It is important that students and researchers from all over the world can have easy access to relevant, high-standard and timely scientific information. This is exactly what Open Access Journals provide and this is the reason why I support this endeavor."


Jacques Descotes
(Centre Antipoison-Centre de Pharmacovigilance, France)

"Publishing research articles is the key for future scientific progress. Open Access publishing is therefore of utmost importance for wider dissemination of information, and will help serving the best interest of the scientific community."


Patrice Talaga
(UCB S.A., Belgium)

"Open access journals are a novel concept in the medical literature. They offer accessible information to a wide variety of individuals, including physicians, medical students, clinical investigators, and the general public. They are an outstanding source of medical and scientific information."


Jeffrey M. Weinberg
(St. Luke's-Roosevelt Hospital Center, USA)

"Open access journals are extremely useful for graduate students, investigators and all other interested persons to read important scientific articles and subscribe scientific journals. Indeed, the research articles span a wide range of area and of high quality. This is specially a must for researchers belonging to institutions with limited library facility and funding to subscribe scientific journals."


Debomoy K. Lahiri
(Indiana University School of Medicine, USA)

"Open access journals represent a major break-through in publishing. They provide easy access to the latest research on a wide variety of issues. Relevant and timely articles are made available in a fraction of the time taken by more conventional publishers. Articles are of uniformly high quality and written by the world's leading authorities."


Robert Looney
(Naval Postgraduate School, USA)

"Open access journals have transformed the way scientific data is published and disseminated: particularly, whilst ensuring a high quality standard and transparency in the editorial process, they have increased the access to the scientific literature by those researchers that have limited library support or that are working on small budgets."


Richard Reithinger
(Westat, USA)

"Not only do open access journals greatly improve the access to high quality information for scientists in the developing world, it also provides extra exposure for our papers."


J. Ferwerda
(University of Oxford, UK)

"Open Access 'Chemistry' Journals allow the dissemination of knowledge at your finger tips without paying for the scientific content."


Sean L. Kitson
(Almac Sciences, Northern Ireland)

"In principle, all scientific journals should have open access, as should be science itself. Open access journals are very helpful for students, researchers and the general public including people from institutions which do not have library or cannot afford to subscribe scientific journals. The articles are high standard and cover a wide area."


Hubert Wolterbeek
(Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands)

"The widest possible diffusion of information is critical for the advancement of science. In this perspective, open access journals are instrumental in fostering researches and achievements."


Alessandro Laviano
(Sapienza - University of Rome, Italy)

"Open access journals are very useful for all scientists as they can have quick information in the different fields of science."


Philippe Hernigou
(Paris University, France)

"There are many scientists who can not afford the rather expensive subscriptions to scientific journals. Open access journals offer a good alternative for free access to good quality scientific information."


Fidel Toldrá
(Instituto de Agroquimica y Tecnologia de Alimentos, Spain)

"Open access journals have become a fundamental tool for students, researchers, patients and the general public. Many people from institutions which do not have library or cannot afford to subscribe scientific journals benefit of them on a daily basis. The articles are among the best and cover most scientific areas."


M. Bendandi
(University Clinic of Navarre, Spain)

"These journals provide researchers with a platform for rapid, open access scientific communication. The articles are of high quality and broad scope."


Peter Chiba
(University of Vienna, Austria)

"Open access journals are probably one of the most important contributions to promote and diffuse science worldwide."


Jaime Sampaio
(University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Portugal)

"Open access journals make up a new and rather revolutionary way to scientific publication. This option opens several quite interesting possibilities to disseminate openly and freely new knowledge and even to facilitate interpersonal communication among scientists."


Eduardo A. Castro
(INIFTA, Argentina)

"Open access journals are freely available online throughout the world, for you to read, download, copy, distribute, and use. The articles published in the open access journals are high quality and cover a wide range of fields."


Kenji Hashimoto
(Chiba University, Japan)

"Open Access journals offer an innovative and efficient way of publication for academics and professionals in a wide range of disciplines. The papers published are of high quality after rigorous peer review and they are Indexed in: major international databases. I read Open Access journals to keep abreast of the recent development in my field of study."


Daniel Shek
(Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong)

"It is a modern trend for publishers to establish open access journals. Researchers, faculty members, and students will be greatly benefited by the new journals of Bentham Science Publishers Ltd. in this category."


Jih Ru Hwu
(National Central University, Taiwan)


Browse Contents



Webmaster Contact: info@benthamopen.net
Copyright © 2019 Bentham Open