Unmanned Ground Vehicle for Data Collection in Wireless Sensor Networks: Mobility-aware Sink Selection
Omar Aldabbas1, Abdelrahman Abuarqoub*, 2, Mohammad Hammoudeh3, Umar Raza3, Ahcène Bounceur4
1 Faculty of Engineering Al-Balqa Applied University, Amman, Jordan,
2 Faculty of Information Technology, Middle East University, Amman, Jordan,
3 Faculty of Science & Engineering, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester, UK
4 Computer Science Department, University of Brest (UBO), Brest, France
Several recent studies have demonstrated the benefits of using the Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) technology in large-scale monitoring applications, such as planetary exploration and battlefield surveillance. Sensor nodes generate continuous stream of data, which must be processed and delivered to end users in a timely manner. This is a very challenging task due to constraints in sensor node’s hardware resources. Mobile Unmanned Ground Vehicles (UGV) has been put forward as a solution to increase network lifetime and to improve system's Quality of Service (QoS). UGV are mobile devices that can move closer to data sources to reduce the bridging distance to the sink. They gather and process sensory data before they transmit it over a long-range communication technology. In large-scale monitored physical environments, the deployment of multiple-UGV is essential to deliver consistent QoS across different parts of the network. However, data sink mobility causes intermittent connectivity and high re-connection overhead, which may introduce considerable data delivery delay. Consequently, frequent network reconfigurations in multiple data sink networks must be managed in an effective way. In this paper, we contribute an algorithm to allow nodes to choose between multiple available UGVs, with the primary objective of reducing the network reconfiguration and signalling overhead. This is realised by assigning each node to the mobile sink that offers the longest connectivity time. The proposed algorithm takes into account the UGV’s mobility parameters, including its movement direction and velocity, to achieve longer connectivity period. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can reduce end-to-end delay and improve packet delivery ratio, while maintaining low sink discovery and handover overhead. When compared to its best rivals in the literature, the proposed approach improves the packet delivery ratio by up to 22%, end-to-end delay by up to 28%, energy consumption by up to 58%, and doubles the network lifetime.
Keywords: Connection expiry time, Mobile node management, Mobile sink selection, Multiple sink, Received signal strength, Topology maintenance, Unmanned ground vehicle, Wireless sensor network.
open-access license: This is an open access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non-Commercial 4.0 International Public License (CC BY-NC 4.0) (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/legalcode), which permits unrestricted, non-commercial use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the work is properly cited.
Address correspondence to this author at the Faculty of Information Technology, Middle East University, Amman, Jordan; Tel: (+962) 64790222; E-mail: AAbuarqoub@meu.edu.jo