The Open Biomedical Engineering Journal

ISSN: 1874-1207 ― Volume 13, 2019

Motion Tracking for Quantitative and Qualitative Assessment of Upper Limb Movements Following Acromioclavicular Joint Ligament Reconstruction: A Pilot Study

Stefano Mazzoleni1, 2, *, Elena Battini1, 2, Matteo Galgani3, 4, Miria Tenucci3, 4, Paolo Dario1, Giuseppe Calvosa3, 4
1 The BioRobotics Institute, Scuola Superiore Sant’Anna, Polo Sant’Anna Valdera, Viale R. Piaggio 34, 56025 Pontedera (Pisa), Italy
2 Rehabilitation Bioengineering Laboratory, Auxilium Vitae Rehabilitation Center, Volterra, Italy
3 U.O. Ortopedia e Traumatologia, Ospedale S. Maria Maddalena, Volterra, Italy
4 Azienda USL Toscana, Nordovest, Italy



Technological tools as robotic devices and wearable sensors can provide accurate and repeatable measurements of physical variables (e.g., position, velocities, forces) which can be used for quantitative and qualitative assessment of movement analysis and upper limb motor performance.


The study aims to propose a quantitative and qualitative assessment of upper limb motor performance by means of seven kinematic parameters recorded by a passive mechatronic device in patients who underwent a surgical procedure for ligament reconstruction following acromioclavicular joint dislocation.


Five patients (mean age: 40 ± 12 years) with acromioclavicular joint dislocation were enrolled.

A passive end-effector mechatronic device characterized by 7 degrees of freedom and designed for the assessment of upper limb motor performance - especially for measuring the hand position in three-dimensional space - was used.

The Constant-Murley score and seven kinematic parameters were used as clinical outcome measure and quantitative and qualitative assessment, respectively.


The preliminary results of this study show no significant differences between the impaired arm and unimpaired arm: the end-effector passive mechatronic device used in this study is able to provide an overall assessment of the upper limb motor performance following shoulder impairment.


The motion tracker can be easily used as effective tool for quantitative and qualitative assessment of upper limb motor performance, even several years after the surgical operation.

Keywords: Orthopaedics, Rehabilitation, Upper limb, Assessment, Kinematics, Surgical operation.

Article Information

Identifiers and Pagination:

Year: 2018
Volume: 12
First Page: 135
Last Page: 146
Publisher Id: TOBEJ-12-135
DOI: 10.2174/1874120701812010135

Article History:

Received Date: 1/8/2018
Revision Received Date: 19/11/2018
Acceptance Date: 5/12/2018
Electronic publication date: 31/12/2018
Collection year: 2018

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© 2018 Mazzoleni et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the The BioRobotics Institute, Scuola Superiore Sant’Anna, Polo Sant’Anna Valdera, Viale R. Piaggio, 34, 56025 Pontedera (Pisa), Italy; Tel: +39050883132; E-mail:


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