The Open Biomedical Engineering Journal




ISSN: 1874-1207 ― Volume 12, 2018
RESEARCH ARTICLE

Mobile Application for Ulcer Detection



Luay Fraiwan1, 2, *, Jolu Ninan1, Mohanad Al-Khodari1
1 Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, Abu Dhabi University, Abu Dhabi, 59911, United Arab Emirates
2 Biomedical Engineering Department, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid, 22110, Jordan

Abstract

Purpose:

The number of patients who are suffering from diabetes nowadays is increasing significantly. In some countries, the percentage of population who suffer from this disease can reach up to 20%. Diabetic patients have to deal with their medical conditions and any further complications that this disease may cause. One of the most common conditions is the Diabetic Foot Ulcer (DFU). The early detection of these ulcers can help and may save the life of diabetic patients.

Methods:

This work proposes a mobile application for the detection of possible ulcers using a smart phone along with a mobile thermal camera (FLIR ONE). The proposed system captures thermal images of the feet from the thermal camera. The app that identifies ulcers was built using Android studio. The images were acquired to the Samsung S6 smart phone using the FLIR ONE SDK. Image processing techniques were deployed based on Open CV Library. The procedure of detecting possible ulcers was implemented based on analyzing the thermal distribution on the two feet. The developed application compares the difference between the temperature distribution on the two feet and checks if there is a Mean Temperature Difference (MTD) greater than 2.2oC (the value which indicates a possible ulcer development).

Results:

The system was tested under simulated conditions by heating different locations of the subjects’ feet to different temperature ranges; one image with temperature less than 2.2oC and another three images with temperature greater than 2.2oC. The system has successfully identified possible ulcer regions along with an image showing the location of the possible ulcers.

Conclusions:

This work is a very first step in developing a complete mobile thermal imaging system that can be validated clinically in the future.

Keywords: Diabetic Foot Ulcer (DFU), Infrared Thermal (IRT) Camera, Red Green Blue (RGB), Mean Temperature Difference (MTD), Thermal Imaging System, Ischemia.


Article Information


Identifiers and Pagination:

Year: 2018
Volume: 12
First Page: 16
Last Page: 26
Publisher Id: TOBEJ-12-16
DOI: 10.2174/1874120701812010016

Article History:

Received Date: 15/03/2018
Revision Received Date: 29/05/2018
Acceptance Date: 02/06/2018
Electronic publication date: 29/06/2018
Collection year: 2018

Article Metrics:

CrossRef Citations:
0

Total Statistics:

Full-Text HTML Views: 353
Abstract HTML Views: 157
PDF Downloads: 93
ePub Downloads: 207
Total Views/Downloads: 810

Unique Statistics:

Full-Text HTML Views: 152
Abstract HTML Views: 95
PDF Downloads: 76
ePub Downloads: 98
Total Views/Downloads: 421
Geographical View

© 2018 Fraiwan et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode. This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


* Address correspondence to this author at the Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, Abu Dhabi University, Abu Dhabi, 59911, United Arab Emirates, Tel: +971-501207727; Email: fraiwan@just.edu.jo


Endorsements



"Open access will revolutionize 21st century knowledge work and accelerate the diffusion of ideas and evidence that support just in time learning and the evolution of thinking in a number of disciplines."


Daniel Pesut
(Indiana University School of Nursing, USA)

"It is important that students and researchers from all over the world can have easy access to relevant, high-standard and timely scientific information. This is exactly what Open Access Journals provide and this is the reason why I support this endeavor."


Jacques Descotes
(Centre Antipoison-Centre de Pharmacovigilance, France)

"Publishing research articles is the key for future scientific progress. Open Access publishing is therefore of utmost importance for wider dissemination of information, and will help serving the best interest of the scientific community."


Patrice Talaga
(UCB S.A., Belgium)

"Open access journals are a novel concept in the medical literature. They offer accessible information to a wide variety of individuals, including physicians, medical students, clinical investigators, and the general public. They are an outstanding source of medical and scientific information."


Jeffrey M. Weinberg
(St. Luke's-Roosevelt Hospital Center, USA)

"Open access journals are extremely useful for graduate students, investigators and all other interested persons to read important scientific articles and subscribe scientific journals. Indeed, the research articles span a wide range of area and of high quality. This is specially a must for researchers belonging to institutions with limited library facility and funding to subscribe scientific journals."


Debomoy K. Lahiri
(Indiana University School of Medicine, USA)

"Open access journals represent a major break-through in publishing. They provide easy access to the latest research on a wide variety of issues. Relevant and timely articles are made available in a fraction of the time taken by more conventional publishers. Articles are of uniformly high quality and written by the world's leading authorities."


Robert Looney
(Naval Postgraduate School, USA)

"Open access journals have transformed the way scientific data is published and disseminated: particularly, whilst ensuring a high quality standard and transparency in the editorial process, they have increased the access to the scientific literature by those researchers that have limited library support or that are working on small budgets."


Richard Reithinger
(Westat, USA)

"Not only do open access journals greatly improve the access to high quality information for scientists in the developing world, it also provides extra exposure for our papers."


J. Ferwerda
(University of Oxford, UK)

"Open Access 'Chemistry' Journals allow the dissemination of knowledge at your finger tips without paying for the scientific content."


Sean L. Kitson
(Almac Sciences, Northern Ireland)

"In principle, all scientific journals should have open access, as should be science itself. Open access journals are very helpful for students, researchers and the general public including people from institutions which do not have library or cannot afford to subscribe scientific journals. The articles are high standard and cover a wide area."


Hubert Wolterbeek
(Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands)

"The widest possible diffusion of information is critical for the advancement of science. In this perspective, open access journals are instrumental in fostering researches and achievements."


Alessandro Laviano
(Sapienza - University of Rome, Italy)

"Open access journals are very useful for all scientists as they can have quick information in the different fields of science."


Philippe Hernigou
(Paris University, France)

"There are many scientists who can not afford the rather expensive subscriptions to scientific journals. Open access journals offer a good alternative for free access to good quality scientific information."


Fidel Toldrá
(Instituto de Agroquimica y Tecnologia de Alimentos, Spain)

"Open access journals have become a fundamental tool for students, researchers, patients and the general public. Many people from institutions which do not have library or cannot afford to subscribe scientific journals benefit of them on a daily basis. The articles are among the best and cover most scientific areas."


M. Bendandi
(University Clinic of Navarre, Spain)

"These journals provide researchers with a platform for rapid, open access scientific communication. The articles are of high quality and broad scope."


Peter Chiba
(University of Vienna, Austria)

"Open access journals are probably one of the most important contributions to promote and diffuse science worldwide."


Jaime Sampaio
(University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Portugal)

"Open access journals make up a new and rather revolutionary way to scientific publication. This option opens several quite interesting possibilities to disseminate openly and freely new knowledge and even to facilitate interpersonal communication among scientists."


Eduardo A. Castro
(INIFTA, Argentina)

"Open access journals are freely available online throughout the world, for you to read, download, copy, distribute, and use. The articles published in the open access journals are high quality and cover a wide range of fields."


Kenji Hashimoto
(Chiba University, Japan)

"Open Access journals offer an innovative and efficient way of publication for academics and professionals in a wide range of disciplines. The papers published are of high quality after rigorous peer review and they are Indexed in: major international databases. I read Open Access journals to keep abreast of the recent development in my field of study."


Daniel Shek
(Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong)

"It is a modern trend for publishers to establish open access journals. Researchers, faculty members, and students will be greatly benefited by the new journals of Bentham Science Publishers Ltd. in this category."


Jih Ru Hwu
(National Central University, Taiwan)


Browse Contents


Webmaster Contact: info@benthamopen.com
Copyright © 2018 Bentham Open