The Open Bioinformatics Journal

ISSN: 1875-0362 ― Volume 13, 2020

Machine Learning Algorithms in Cardiology Domain: A Systematic Review

Aleksei Dudchenko1, 2, Matthias Ganzinger1, Georgy Kopanitsa2, *
1 Institute of Medical Biometry and Informatics, Heidelberg University, Heidelberg, Germany
2 Center for Cognitive Technologies, ITMO University, Saint-Petersburg, Russia



It could be seen in the previous decades that Machine Learning (ML) has a huge variety of possible implementations in medicine and can be of great use. Nevertheless, cardiovascular diseases cause about a third of the total global deaths.

Does ML work in the cardiology domain and what is the current progress in this regard? To answer this question, we present a systematic review aiming at 1) identifying studies where machine learning algorithms were applied in the domain of cardiology; 2) providing an overview based on the existing literature about the state-of-the-art ML algorithms applied in cardiology.


For organizing this review, we adopted the PRISMA statement. We used PubMed as the search engine and identified the search keywords as “Machine Learning”, “Data Mining”, “Cardiology”, and “Cardiovascular” in combinations. Scientific articles and conference papers published between 2013-2017 reporting about implementations of ML algorithms in the domain of cardiology have been included in this review.


In total, 27 relevant papers were included. We examined four aspects: the aims of ML systems, the methods, datasets, and evaluation metrics. The major part of the paper was aimed at predicting the risk of mortality. A promising branch of Machine Learning, the ‘Reinforcement Learning’, was also never proposed in the observed papers. Tree-based ensembles are common and show good results, whereas deep neural networks are poorly represented. Most papers (20 of 27) have used datasets that are hardly available for other researchers, e.g. unpublished local registries. We also identified 28 different metrics for model evaluation. This variety of metrics makes it difficult to compare the results of different researches.


We suppose that this systematic review will be helpful for researchers developing medical machine learning systems and for cardiology in particular.

Keywords: Cardiology, Systematic review, Machine learning, Neural networks, Natural Language Processing (NLP), PubMed.

Article Information

Identifiers and Pagination:

Year: 2020
Volume: 13
First Page: 25
Last Page: 40
Publisher Id: TOBIOIJ-13-25
DOI: 10.2174/1875036202013010025

Article History:

Received Date: 30/10/2019
Revision Received Date: 06/02/2020
Acceptance Date: 11/02/2020
Electronic publication date: 23/04/2020
Collection year: 2020

© 2020 Dudchenko et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: ( This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Center for Cognitive Technologies, ITMO University, Saint-Petersburg, Russia; E-mail:

Track Your Manuscript:


"Open access will revolutionize 21st century knowledge work and accelerate the diffusion of ideas and evidence that support just in time learning and the evolution of thinking in a number of disciplines."

Daniel Pesut
(Indiana University School of Nursing, USA)

"It is important that students and researchers from all over the world can have easy access to relevant, high-standard and timely scientific information. This is exactly what Open Access Journals provide and this is the reason why I support this endeavor."

Jacques Descotes
(Centre Antipoison-Centre de Pharmacovigilance, France)

"Publishing research articles is the key for future scientific progress. Open Access publishing is therefore of utmost importance for wider dissemination of information, and will help serving the best interest of the scientific community."

Patrice Talaga
(UCB S.A., Belgium)

"Open access journals are a novel concept in the medical literature. They offer accessible information to a wide variety of individuals, including physicians, medical students, clinical investigators, and the general public. They are an outstanding source of medical and scientific information."

Jeffrey M. Weinberg
(St. Luke's-Roosevelt Hospital Center, USA)

"Open access journals are extremely useful for graduate students, investigators and all other interested persons to read important scientific articles and subscribe scientific journals. Indeed, the research articles span a wide range of area and of high quality. This is specially a must for researchers belonging to institutions with limited library facility and funding to subscribe scientific journals."

Debomoy K. Lahiri
(Indiana University School of Medicine, USA)

"Open access journals represent a major break-through in publishing. They provide easy access to the latest research on a wide variety of issues. Relevant and timely articles are made available in a fraction of the time taken by more conventional publishers. Articles are of uniformly high quality and written by the world's leading authorities."

Robert Looney
(Naval Postgraduate School, USA)

"Open access journals have transformed the way scientific data is published and disseminated: particularly, whilst ensuring a high quality standard and transparency in the editorial process, they have increased the access to the scientific literature by those researchers that have limited library support or that are working on small budgets."

Richard Reithinger
(Westat, USA)

"Not only do open access journals greatly improve the access to high quality information for scientists in the developing world, it also provides extra exposure for our papers."

J. Ferwerda
(University of Oxford, UK)

"Open Access 'Chemistry' Journals allow the dissemination of knowledge at your finger tips without paying for the scientific content."

Sean L. Kitson
(Almac Sciences, Northern Ireland)

"In principle, all scientific journals should have open access, as should be science itself. Open access journals are very helpful for students, researchers and the general public including people from institutions which do not have library or cannot afford to subscribe scientific journals. The articles are high standard and cover a wide area."

Hubert Wolterbeek
(Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands)

"The widest possible diffusion of information is critical for the advancement of science. In this perspective, open access journals are instrumental in fostering researches and achievements."

Alessandro Laviano
(Sapienza - University of Rome, Italy)

"Open access journals are very useful for all scientists as they can have quick information in the different fields of science."

Philippe Hernigou
(Paris University, France)

"There are many scientists who can not afford the rather expensive subscriptions to scientific journals. Open access journals offer a good alternative for free access to good quality scientific information."

Fidel Toldrá
(Instituto de Agroquimica y Tecnologia de Alimentos, Spain)

"Open access journals have become a fundamental tool for students, researchers, patients and the general public. Many people from institutions which do not have library or cannot afford to subscribe scientific journals benefit of them on a daily basis. The articles are among the best and cover most scientific areas."

M. Bendandi
(University Clinic of Navarre, Spain)

"These journals provide researchers with a platform for rapid, open access scientific communication. The articles are of high quality and broad scope."

Peter Chiba
(University of Vienna, Austria)

"Open access journals are probably one of the most important contributions to promote and diffuse science worldwide."

Jaime Sampaio
(University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Portugal)

"Open access journals make up a new and rather revolutionary way to scientific publication. This option opens several quite interesting possibilities to disseminate openly and freely new knowledge and even to facilitate interpersonal communication among scientists."

Eduardo A. Castro
(INIFTA, Argentina)

"Open access journals are freely available online throughout the world, for you to read, download, copy, distribute, and use. The articles published in the open access journals are high quality and cover a wide range of fields."

Kenji Hashimoto
(Chiba University, Japan)

"Open Access journals offer an innovative and efficient way of publication for academics and professionals in a wide range of disciplines. The papers published are of high quality after rigorous peer review and they are Indexed in: major international databases. I read Open Access journals to keep abreast of the recent development in my field of study."

Daniel Shek
(Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong)

"It is a modern trend for publishers to establish open access journals. Researchers, faculty members, and students will be greatly benefited by the new journals of Bentham Science Publishers Ltd. in this category."

Jih Ru Hwu
(National Central University, Taiwan)

Browse Contents

Webmaster Contact:
Copyright © 2020 Bentham Open