The Open Biology Journal

ISSN: 1874-1967 ― Volume 8, 2020

Genome-Wide Analysis of Copy Number Variations in Normal Population Identified by SNP Arrays

The Open Biology Journal , 2009, 2: 54-65

Jian Wang, Tsz-Kwong Man, Kwong Kwok Wong, Pulivarthi H. Rao, Hon-Chiu Eastwood Leung, Rudy Guerra, Ching C. Lau

Texas Children’s Hospital, 6621 Fannin St. MC 3-3320, Houston, TX 77030, USA.

Electronic publication date 08/7/2009
[DOI: 10.2174/1874196700902010054]


Gene copy number change is an essential characteristic of many types of cancer. However, it is important to distinguish copy number variation (CNV) in the human genome of normal individuals from bona fide abnormal copy number changes of genes specific to cancers. Based on Affymetrix 50K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array data, we identified genome-wide copy number variations among 104 normal subjects from three ethnic groups that were used in the HapMap project. Our analysis revealed 155 CNV regions, of which 37% were gains and 63% were losses. About 21% (30) of the CNV regions are concordant with earlier reports. These 155 CNV regions are located on more than 100 cytobands across all 23 chromosomes. The CNVs range from 68bp to 18 Mb in length, with a median length of 86 Kb. Eight CNV regions were selected for validation by quantitative PCR. Analysis of genomic sequences within and adjacent to CNVs suggests that repetitive sequences such as long interspersed nuclear elements (LINEs) and long terminal repeats (LTRs) may play a role in the origin of CNVs by facilitating non-allelic homologous recombination. Thirty-two percent of the CNVs identified in this study are associated with segmental duplications. CNVs were not preferentially enriched in gene-encoding regions. Among the 364 genes that are completely encompassed by these 155 CNVs, genes related to olfactory sensory, chemical stimulus, and other physiological responses are significantly enriched. A statistical analysis of CNVs by ethnic group revealed distinct patterns regarding the CNV location and gain-to-loss ratio. The CNVs reported here will help build a more comprehensive map of genomic variations in the human genome and facilitate the differentiation between copy number variation and somatic changes in cancers. The potential roles of certain repeat elements in CNV formation, as corroborated by other studies, shed light on the origin of CNVs and will improve our understanding of the mechanisms of genomic rearrangements in the human genome.

Download PDF

Track Your Manuscript:


"Open access will revolutionize 21st century knowledge work and accelerate the diffusion of ideas and evidence that support just in time learning and the evolution of thinking in a number of disciplines."

Daniel Pesut
(Indiana University School of Nursing, USA)

"It is important that students and researchers from all over the world can have easy access to relevant, high-standard and timely scientific information. This is exactly what Open Access Journals provide and this is the reason why I support this endeavor."

Jacques Descotes
(Centre Antipoison-Centre de Pharmacovigilance, France)

"Publishing research articles is the key for future scientific progress. Open Access publishing is therefore of utmost importance for wider dissemination of information, and will help serving the best interest of the scientific community."

Patrice Talaga
(UCB S.A., Belgium)

"Open access journals are a novel concept in the medical literature. They offer accessible information to a wide variety of individuals, including physicians, medical students, clinical investigators, and the general public. They are an outstanding source of medical and scientific information."

Jeffrey M. Weinberg
(St. Luke's-Roosevelt Hospital Center, USA)

"Open access journals are extremely useful for graduate students, investigators and all other interested persons to read important scientific articles and subscribe scientific journals. Indeed, the research articles span a wide range of area and of high quality. This is specially a must for researchers belonging to institutions with limited library facility and funding to subscribe scientific journals."

Debomoy K. Lahiri
(Indiana University School of Medicine, USA)

"Open access journals represent a major break-through in publishing. They provide easy access to the latest research on a wide variety of issues. Relevant and timely articles are made available in a fraction of the time taken by more conventional publishers. Articles are of uniformly high quality and written by the world's leading authorities."

Robert Looney
(Naval Postgraduate School, USA)

"Open access journals have transformed the way scientific data is published and disseminated: particularly, whilst ensuring a high quality standard and transparency in the editorial process, they have increased the access to the scientific literature by those researchers that have limited library support or that are working on small budgets."

Richard Reithinger
(Westat, USA)

"Not only do open access journals greatly improve the access to high quality information for scientists in the developing world, it also provides extra exposure for our papers."

J. Ferwerda
(University of Oxford, UK)

"Open Access 'Chemistry' Journals allow the dissemination of knowledge at your finger tips without paying for the scientific content."

Sean L. Kitson
(Almac Sciences, Northern Ireland)

"In principle, all scientific journals should have open access, as should be science itself. Open access journals are very helpful for students, researchers and the general public including people from institutions which do not have library or cannot afford to subscribe scientific journals. The articles are high standard and cover a wide area."

Hubert Wolterbeek
(Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands)

"The widest possible diffusion of information is critical for the advancement of science. In this perspective, open access journals are instrumental in fostering researches and achievements."

Alessandro Laviano
(Sapienza - University of Rome, Italy)

"Open access journals are very useful for all scientists as they can have quick information in the different fields of science."

Philippe Hernigou
(Paris University, France)

"There are many scientists who can not afford the rather expensive subscriptions to scientific journals. Open access journals offer a good alternative for free access to good quality scientific information."

Fidel Toldrá
(Instituto de Agroquimica y Tecnologia de Alimentos, Spain)

"Open access journals have become a fundamental tool for students, researchers, patients and the general public. Many people from institutions which do not have library or cannot afford to subscribe scientific journals benefit of them on a daily basis. The articles are among the best and cover most scientific areas."

M. Bendandi
(University Clinic of Navarre, Spain)

"These journals provide researchers with a platform for rapid, open access scientific communication. The articles are of high quality and broad scope."

Peter Chiba
(University of Vienna, Austria)

"Open access journals are probably one of the most important contributions to promote and diffuse science worldwide."

Jaime Sampaio
(University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Portugal)

"Open access journals make up a new and rather revolutionary way to scientific publication. This option opens several quite interesting possibilities to disseminate openly and freely new knowledge and even to facilitate interpersonal communication among scientists."

Eduardo A. Castro
(INIFTA, Argentina)

"Open access journals are freely available online throughout the world, for you to read, download, copy, distribute, and use. The articles published in the open access journals are high quality and cover a wide range of fields."

Kenji Hashimoto
(Chiba University, Japan)

"Open Access journals offer an innovative and efficient way of publication for academics and professionals in a wide range of disciplines. The papers published are of high quality after rigorous peer review and they are Indexed in: major international databases. I read Open Access journals to keep abreast of the recent development in my field of study."

Daniel Shek
(Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong)

"It is a modern trend for publishers to establish open access journals. Researchers, faculty members, and students will be greatly benefited by the new journals of Bentham Science Publishers Ltd. in this category."

Jih Ru Hwu
(National Central University, Taiwan)

Browse Contents

Webmaster Contact:
Copyright © 2020 Bentham Open