The Open Biology Journal

ISSN: 1874-1967 ― Volume 8, 2020

Effects of Exercise and Bioprocessed Soybean Meal Diets during Rainbow Trout Rearing

Jill M. Voorhees1, Michael E. Barnes1, *, Steven R. Chipps2, Michael L. Brown3
1 South Dakota Department of Game, Fish and Parks, McNenny State Fish Hatchery, 19619 Trout Loop, Spearfish, SD 57783, USA
2 Department of Natural Resource Management, U.S. Geological Survey, South Dakota Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD 57007, USA
3 Department of Natural Resource Management, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD 57007, USA



Alternative protein sources to fishmeal in fish feeds are needed.


Evaluate rearing performance of adult rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) (initial weight 139.0 ±1.5 g, length 232.9 ± 0.8 mm, mean ± SE) fed one of the two isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets (46% protein, 16% lipid) and reared at one of the two levels of exercise (water velocities of either 3.6 cm/s or 33.2 cm/s).


Protein in the control diet was based on fishmeal. In the experimental diet, bioprocessed soybean meal replaced approximately 60% of the fishmeal. Fish were fed by hand once-per-day to near satiation, and the food was increased daily. The experiment lasted 90-days.


There were no significant differences in gain, percent gain, or specific growth rate between the dietary treatments. However, the amount of food fed and feed conversion ratio was significantly lower in the 60% bioprocessed soybean meal diet. Intestinal morphology, relative fin length, splenosomatic index, hepatosomatic index, and viscerosomatic index were not significantly different in the trout fed either diet. Fish reared at 3.6 cm/s had a significantly lower feed conversion ratio (1.02 ± 0.02) than fish reared at 33.2 cm/s (1.13 ± 0.02). However, there were no significant differences in gain, percent gain, specific growth rate, or percentage mortality in fish reared with or without exercise. No significant interactions were observed between diet and exercise (higher water velocity).


Based on these results, at least 60% of the fishmeal in adult rainbow trout diets can be replaced by bioprocessed soybean meal, even if higher water velocities are used to exercise the fish.

Keywords: Alternative protein, Growth, Oncorhynchus mykiss, Salmonid, Water velocity, Bioprocessed soybean meal.

Article Information

Identifiers and Pagination:

Year: 2019
Volume: 7
First Page: 1
Last Page: 13
Publisher Id: TOBIOJ-7-1
DOI: 10.2174/1874196701907010001

Article History:

Received Date: 07/09/2018
Revision Received Date: 07/03/2019
Acceptance Date: 19/03/2019
Electronic publication date: 16/04/2019
Collection year: 2019

© 2019 Voorhees et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: ( This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this Author at the South Dakota Department of Game, Fish and Parks, McNenny State Fish Hatchery, 19619 Trout Loop, Spearfish, SD 57783, USA; Tel: 605-645-1262; Fax: 605-645-6921;

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