The Open Biomarkers Journal

ISSN: 1875-3183 ― Volume 10, 2020

Effect of Sample Processing Delays on the Values of Serum Based Biomarkers of Brain Injury Collected from the Umbilical Cord Blood of Neonates

Michael D. Weiss1, *, Nikolay A. Bliznyuk2, Candace C. Rossignol1, Livia Sura1, Melissa Huene1, Nicole Copenhaver1, Olena Glushakova3, Ronald L. Hayes4
1 Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neonatology, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, United States of America
2 Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, United States of America
3 Department of Neurosurgery, Virgina Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia, United States of America
4 Department of Clinical and Health Psychology, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, United States of America



When a neonate is born with suspected brain injury, blood samples are often obtained from the umbilical cord blood but are not always processed immediately.


Test the accuracy of brain injury biomarker assays on samples that experienced delayed processing.


Healthy neonates who did not have risk factors for brain injury provided cord blood samples. Group 1 blood samples were centrifuged immediately, and the serum was removed and frozen at baseline, 4, and 8 hours. Group 2 had a baseline sample processed immediately and then blood samples remained in contact with the clotted portion until 4, and 8 hours and then were centrifuged. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays determined the concentrations of Ubiquitin C-Terminal Hydrolase L1 (UCH-L1) and Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein (GFAP).


Group 1’s average concentrations of GFAP were 62±47 pg/ml at 0 hours (n=32) with a mean increase of 3±14% and a decrease of 0.2±9% at 4 and 8 hours, respectively. UCH-L1 average concentrations were 3306±3093 pg/ml at 0 hours (n=37) with a mean increase of 3±10% at 4 hours and a mean decrease of 0.6±11% at 8 hours. Group 2’s average GFAP concentrations were 104±111 pg/ml at 0 hours (n=9) with a mean decrease of 5±9% and 7±7% at 4 and 8 hours, respectively. UCH-L1 average concentrations were 3448±2456 pg/ml at 0 hour (n=8) with a mean increase of 9±6% and 6±18% at 4 and 8 hours, respectively.


Delays in processing up to 8 hours did not significantly affect the concentration of UCH-L1 or GFAP.

Keywords: Hypoxic-ischemic Encephalopathy, Biomarkers, Neonates, GFAP, UCH-L1, Brain injury.

Article Information

Identifiers and Pagination:

Year: 2019
Volume: 9
First Page: 10
Last Page: 16
Publisher Id: TOBIOMJ-9-10
DOI: 10.2174/1875318301909010021

Article History:

Received Date: 29/11/2018
Revision Received Date: 10/01/2019
Acceptance Date: 20/01/2019
Electronic publication date: 15/02/2019
Collection year: 2019

© 2019 Weiss et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: ( This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neonatology, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, United States of America; Tel: 352-273-8985, Fax: 352-273-9054, E-mail:

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