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Fixed-bed reactors have gained growing attention for the cultivation of mammalian cells. They allow for a low
shear stress cultivation of adherent and non-adherent cells due to the immobilization of cells within macroporous carriers.
Their potential has been demonstrated for many cell culture purposes. Some of the recent developments are presented in
this review, including improved antibody production by hybridoma cells, high performance cultivation of a hepatoblastoma
cell line and cultivation of cells for the production of retroviral vectors. Furthermore, criteria for the selection of
process strategies and scale-up concepts are addressed.