The Open Biotechnology Journal

ISSN: 1874-0707 ― Volume 13, 2019

Biomethanization of Cattle Manure, Pig Manure and Poultry Manure Mixture in Co-digestion with Waste of Pineapple Fruit and Content of Chicken-Gizzard- Part I: Kinetic and Thermodynamic Modelling Studies

O. A. Aworanti1, S. E. Agarry2, *, O. O. Ogunleye1
1 Biochemical and Chemical Engineering Biotechnology Laboratory, Department of Chemical Engineering, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, P. M. B. 4000, Ogbomoso, Nigeria.
2 Biochemical and Bioenvironmental Engineering Laboratory, Department of Chemical Engineering, Delta State University, Abraka, P.M.B. 22, Oleh Campus, Nigeria



The increased energy consumption from fossil fuels with its attendant gas emissions and environmental problems has provided the impetus to exploit new energy source that are renewable and environmentally-friendly.


This work focused on the investigation and evaluation of the single or individual effects of feed-inoculum ratio, temperature, and agitation speed (i.e. operating variables) on biomethanization of the mixture of cattle manure, pig manure and poultry manure (mixed animal wastes) co-digested with pineapple fruit waste and content of chicken-gizzard (inoculum) as well as to model the kinetics of biomethanization at these different operating variables and to determine the thermodynamic properties of the biomethanization process.


The biomethanization experiments were carried out in anaerobic biodigesters at operating variables of feed/inoculums ratio that ranged from 1:1 to 3:1, temperature from 25 to 60°C, and agitation speed from 30 - 70 rpm using one factor at a time (OFAT) method. The biodigesters were incubated for 70 days retention time.


The feed/inoculum ratio, temperature and agitation speed had positive impact on cumulative biogas yield, biomethane content and start-up time of biomethanization. The cumulative biogas yield and biomethane content achieved with agitation speed of 30 to 70 rpm was respectively higher than the biogas yield and biomethane content attained without agitation. Minimum cumulative biogas yield and biomethane content was respectively obtained with feed/inoculum ratio of 1:1, temperature of 25°C and agitation speed of 70 rpm; while maximum cumulative biogas yield with its biomethane content was attained with feed/inoculum ratios of 1:3 and 3:1, temperature of 60°C and agitation speed of 30 rpm, respectively. Modified Gompertz and Exponential Rise to Maximum kinetic models fitted very well to the data and thus showed better correlation of cumulative biogas production. The thermodynamic parameters of Gibbs free energy, enthalpy, entropy change and activation energy of biomethanization were estimated and evaluated, and was found that the biomethanization process was thermodynamically feasible, spontaneous and endothermic in nature suggesting hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis pathway. The activation energy of the biomethanization process was found to be 3.324 kJ/ mol. The specific heat capacity at constant volume and constant pressure, specific internal energy and specific enthalpy of the biogas and biomethane content increased with increase in temperature.


Biogas/biomethane production from the biomethanization of mixed animal wastes co-digested with fruit waste and inoculum is a feasible, viable and sustainable renewable energy option that can be simulated by kinetic models and influenced by operating variables.

Keywords: Animal waste, Biogas, Biomethane Content, Process variables, Kinetics, Thermodynamics.

Article Information

Identifiers and Pagination:

Year: 2017
Volume: 11
First Page: 36
Last Page: 53
Publisher Id: TOBIOTJ-11-36
DOI: 10.2174/1874070701711010036

Article History:

Received Date: 29/01/2017
Revision Received Date: 27/03/2017
Acceptance Date: 27/04/2017
Electronic publication date: 29/06/2017
Collection year: 2017

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© 2017 Aworanti et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: ( This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Biochemical and Bioenvironmental Engineering Laboratory, Department of Chemical Engineering, Delta State University, Abraka, P.M.B. 22, Oleh Campus, Nigeria; Tel: +2348055529705; E-mail:


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