The Open Dentistry Journal

ISSN: 1874-2106 ― Volume 14, 2020

The Effect of Chin-cup Therapy in Class III Malocclusion: A Systematic Review

Sophia Mousoulea1, *, Ioannis Tsolakis2, Efstratios Ferdianakis3, Apostolos I. Tsolakis3
1 Department of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, 251 Hellenic Air Force General Hospital, Athens, Greece
2 Laboratory for Experimental Surgery and Surgical Research “N. S. Christeas”, Medical School, University of Athens, Greece
3 Department of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, University of Athens, Greece



The treatment of Class III malocclusion has been challenging for orthodontists. Among a plethora of treatment modalities, the chin-cup is considered a traditional appliance for early orthopedic intervention.


The present study aims to investigate the current scientific evidence regarding the effectiveness of chin-cup therapy in Class III malocclusion of prognathic growing patients.


A systematic review of the literature was conducted using PubMed/Medline and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials from January 1954 to October 2015. Articles were selected based on established inclusion/ exclusion criteria.


The search strategy resulted in 3285 articles.14 studies were selected for the final analysis. They were all CCTs, 13 of retrospective and 1 of prospective design. Methodological quality was evaluated by a risk of bias assessment, as suggested by the Cochrane Risk of Bias Assessment Tool for Non-Randomized Studies on Interventions. The reported evidence presented favorable short-term outcomes both in hard and soft tissues improving the Class III profile, as well as desirable dento-alveolar changes, positively affecting the Class III malocclusion.


There is considerable agreement between studies that chin-cup therapy can be considered for the short-term treatment of growing patients with Class III malocclusion, as indicated by favorable changes both in the hard and soft tissues. The existence of considerable risk of bias in all selected studies and the unclear long-term effectiveness of chin-cup therapy highlight the need for further investigation to draw reliable conclusions.

Keywords: Chin-cup Therapy, Class III Malocclusion, Class III Treatment, Mandibular Prognathism, Skeletal Malocclusion, Systematic Review.

Article Information

Identifiers and Pagination:

Year: 2016
Volume: 10
First Page: 664
Last Page: 679
Publisher Id: TODENTJ-10-664
DOI: 10.2174/1874210601610010664

Article History:

Received Date: 05/03/2016
Revision Received Date: 07/09/2016
Acceptance Date: 28/10/2016
Electronic publication date: 09/12/2016
Collection year: 2016

© Mousoulea et al.; Licensee Bentham Open

open-access license: This is an open access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non-Commercial 4.0 International Public License (CC BY-NC 4.0) (, which permits unrestricted, non-commercial use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the work is properly cited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, 251 Hellenic Air Force General Hospital, Athens, Greece; Tel: +306973277463; E-mail:

Track Your Manuscript:


"Thank you for your magnificent and marvelous support throughout the publication stages. I would like to endorse my experience with you as a Junior Researcher and a recent graduate of the Dental school. Once again Thank you for your Great Help and Guidance throughout the stages of Publication. You guys are a great team and I am proud to be a Young Bentham author."

Asra Sabir Hussain
The University of Edinburgh Business School, UK

"My experience with Bentham Open was a valuable one because the quality of the services and analysis of my paper contributed in improving what we intended to convey to the readers."

José Ricardo Kina
Department of Surgery and Integrated Clinic,
Araçatuba School of Dentistry, São Paulo State University

"The Publication Manager was very cooperative and replied my mails and guided me without any delays; however the reviewing process was too long."

Mahtab Memarpour
Prevention of Oral and Dental Disease Research Center,
Department of Pediatric Dentistry, School of Dentistry,
Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz,

Browse Contents

Webmaster Contact:
Copyright © 2020 Bentham Open