The Open Dentistry Journal




ISSN: 1874-2106 ― Volume 13, 2019

Etiology, Diagnosis, Consequences and Treatment of Infraoccluded Primary Molars



Aristidis Arhakis*, Eirini Boutiou
School of Dentistry, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece

Abstract

Infraocclusion is a condition where teeth are found with their occlusal surface below the adjacent teeth, long after they should have reached occlusion. Many terms have been used to describe this condition; the most commonly used being submergence and ankylosis. Infraocclusion is classified as slight, moderate or severe. Studies have shown the commonness ratio of infraocclusion in kids being 1.3-8.9% with an equal male: female ratio. The frequency of infraocclusion of primary molars of mandible is 10-fold higher in contrast to those of the maxilla. Some studies showed that the first mandibular primary molars are most often affected, but others support the second one. Infraoccluded primary molars appear with an increase in 3 year-old children reaching a peak in 8-9 years of age. The main cause is ankylosis, followed by heredity, trauma, infection and various other theories. However, the etiology is still uncertain. Radiographically, an obliteration of the periodontal ligament can be seen using conventional methods and the CT-method can also be used to reveal greater detail. Clinically, other than submersion, a sharp, solid sound is heard on percussion, in contrast to a softer sound in the normal teeth. Infraoccluded primary teeth can cause occlusal disturbances, tilting of the adjacent teeth, supra-eruption of the antagonists, ectopic eruption or impaction of the successor premolars. A treatment decision must take into account whether there is a permanent successor or not. In the first case, patient monitoring is recommended, because these primary teeth usually exfoliate normally. However, in the second case, the therapeutic approach is not standard. The aim of this review of literature was to elucidate the available evidence concerning infraocclusion, its etiology, diagnosis, clinical characteristics, consequences and treatment.

Keywords: Infraocclusion, Submerged primary molars, Ankylosis, Occlusal plane, Submersion.


Article Information


Identifiers and Pagination:

Year: 2016
Volume: 10
First Page: 714
Last Page: 719
Publisher Id: TODENTJ-10-714
DOI: 10.2174/1874210601610010714

Article History:

Received Date: 16/08/2016
Revision Received Date: 26/10/2016
Acceptance Date: 06/12/2016
Electronic publication date: 30/12/2016
Collection year: 2016

Article Metrics:

CrossRef Citations:
0

Total Statistics:

Full-Text HTML Views: 1328
Abstract HTML Views: 1001
PDF Downloads: 532
ePub Downloads: 197
Total Views/Downloads: 3058

Unique Statistics:

Full-Text HTML Views: 883
Abstract HTML Views: 601
PDF Downloads: 313
ePub Downloads: 140
Total Views/Downloads: 1937
Geographical View

© Arhakis & Boutiou ; Licensee Bentham Open

open-access license: This is an open access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non-Commercial 4.0 International Public License (CC BY-NC 4.0) (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/legalcode), which permits unrestricted, non-commercial use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the work is properly cited.


* Address correspondence to this author at the School of Dentistry, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece, Ermou 73, 54623; Tel: 00302310253553; Fax: 00302310999613; E-mail: oaristidis@gmail.com


Endorsements



"Thank you for your magnificent and marvelous support throughout the publication stages. I would like to endorse my experience with you as a Junior Researcher and a recent graduate of the Dental school. Once again Thank you for your Great Help and Guidance throughout the stages of Publication. You guys are a great team and I am proud to be a Young Bentham author."


Asra Sabir Hussain
The University of Edinburgh Business School, UK

"My experience with Bentham Open was a valuable one because the quality of the services and analysis of my paper contributed in improving what we intended to convey to the readers."


José Ricardo Kina
Department of Surgery and Integrated Clinic,
Araçatuba School of Dentistry, São Paulo State University
Brazil

"The Publication Manager was very cooperative and replied my mails and guided me without any delays; however the reviewing process was too long."


Mahtab Memarpour
Prevention of Oral and Dental Disease Research Center,
Department of Pediatric Dentistry, School of Dentistry,
Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz,
Iran


Browse Contents



Webmaster Contact: info@benthamopen.net
Copyright © 2019 Bentham Open