The Open Dentistry Journal

ISSN: 1874-2106 ― Volume 14, 2020

Microbial Etiology and Antimicrobial Therapy of Peri-implantitis: A Comprehensive Review

Muhammad Waqar Hussain1, Shahabe Saquib Abullais2, *, Talib Amin Naqash1, Mohammad Yunis Saleem Bhat2
1 Department of Prosthetic Dentistry, College of Dentistry, King Khalid University, Abha, Saudi Arabia
2 Department of Periodontics and Community Dental Sciences, College of Dentistry, King Khalid University, Abha, Saudi Arabia



Implants have turned out to be a well-established therapy in dental practice for the replacement of missing teeth and restoration of function.

Peri-implant disease denotes the inflammatory condition of surrounding soft and hard tissues.

Two terminologies are covered under the impression of peri-implant pathology; peri-implantitis and mucositis. Peri-implant mucositis is a reversible inflammatory process limited to soft tissues around an implant. Peri-implantitis is an inflammatory condition of hard and soft tissue around the dental implant.

Microbial Etiology:

Bacterial infections are the most common cause of peri-implantitis. It is a variable poly-microbial infection, although generally dominated by Gram-negative anaerobic bacteria Anti-infective therapy should be included in the treatment regime, while treating the peri-implant disease. Antimicrobial therapy includes local debridement, antibiotic therapy and surface decontamination of the implant.


The current article gives a detailed overview of microbial etiology, antimicrobial therapy and its limitations for the treatment of peri-implant Pathology.

Keywords: Implant, Peri-implantitis, Antimicrobial, Microorganism, Antibiotics, Microbial etiology.

Article Information

Identifiers and Pagination:

Year: 2018
Volume: 12
First Page: 1113
Last Page: 1122
Publisher Id: TODENTJ-12-1113
DOI: 10.2174/1874210601812011113

Article History:

Received Date: 8/10/2018
Revision Received Date: 13/11/2018
Acceptance Date: 10/12/2018
Electronic publication date: 31/12/2018
Collection year: 2018

© 2018 Hussain et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: ( This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Periodontics and Community Dental Sciences, College of Dentistry, King Khalid University, Abha, Saudi Arabia; Tel: +966583056343; E-mail:

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