Microbial Etiology and Antimicrobial Therapy of Peri-implantitis: A Comprehensive Review
Muhammad Waqar Hussain1, Shahabe Saquib Abullais2, *, Talib Amin Naqash1, Mohammad Yunis Saleem Bhat2
1 Department of Prosthetic Dentistry, College of Dentistry, King Khalid University, Abha, Saudi Arabia
2 Department of Periodontics and Community Dental Sciences, College of Dentistry, King Khalid University, Abha, Saudi Arabia
Implants have turned out to be a well-established therapy in dental practice for the replacement of missing teeth and restoration of function.
Peri-implant disease denotes the inflammatory condition of surrounding soft and hard tissues.
Two terminologies are covered under the impression of peri-implant pathology; peri-implantitis and mucositis. Peri-implant mucositis is a reversible inflammatory process limited to soft tissues around an implant. Peri-implantitis is an inflammatory condition of hard and soft tissue around the dental implant.
Bacterial infections are the most common cause of peri-implantitis. It is a variable poly-microbial infection, although generally dominated by Gram-negative anaerobic bacteria Anti-infective therapy should be included in the treatment regime, while treating the peri-implant disease. Antimicrobial therapy includes local debridement, antibiotic therapy and surface decontamination of the implant.
The current article gives a detailed overview of microbial etiology, antimicrobial therapy and its limitations for the treatment of peri-implant Pathology.
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* Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Periodontics and Community Dental Sciences, College of Dentistry, King Khalid University, Abha, Saudi Arabia; Tel: +966583056343; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org