The Open Dentistry Journal

ISSN: 1874-2106 ― Volume 14, 2020

A Current Approach to Halitosis and Oral Malodor- A Mini Review

Damla Aksit Bicak*
Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, Near East University, Nicosia / TRNC Mersin 10 � Turkey



Halitosis, in other words, oral malodor is an important multifactorial health problem affecting the psychological and social life of individuals and is the most common reason for referral to dentists after dental caries and periodontal diseases.


The objective of this review was to present and discuss conventional and recently introduced information about the types, causes, detection and treatment methods of halitosis.


An expanded literature review was conducted which targeted all articles published in peer-reviewed journals relating to the topic of halitosis. Only articles written in Turkish and English languages were considered. The review itself began with a search of relevant subject headings such as ‘halitosis, oral malodor, volatile sulfur compounds in PubMed/Medline, Scopus, Google Scholar and Tubitak Ulakbim databases. A hand search of references was also performed.


When search results are combined, the total number of relevant literature was found to be 4646 abstracts and 978 full-text articles. Abstracts, editorial letters were not included and about half of full-text articles were not related to dental practice. Among the remaining 124 full-text articles, duplicated articles and articles written other than Turkish and English languages were removed and 54 full-text articles were used for this review.


According to the reviewed articles, both conventional and new methods were introduced in the management of halitosis. However, conventional methods seem to be more effective and widely used in the diagnosis and treatment of halitosis.


As being first line professionals, dentists must analyze and treat oral problems which may be responsible for the patient's malodor, and should inform the patient about halitosis causes and oral hygiene procedures (tooth flossing, tongue cleaning, appropriate mouthwash and toothpaste selection and use) and if the problem persists, they should consult to a medical specialist.

Keywords: Halitophobia, Halitosis, Oral malodor, Oral diseases, Pseudohalitosis, Volatile sulfur compounds.

Article Information

Identifiers and Pagination:

Year: 2018
Volume: 12
First Page: 322
Last Page: 330
Publisher Id: TODENTJ-12-322
DOI: 10.2174/1874210601812010322

Article History:

Received Date: 1/2/2018
Revision Received Date: 18/3/2018
Acceptance Date: 16/4/2018
Electronic publication date: 30/04/2018
Collection year: 2018

© 2018 Damla Aksit Bicak.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: ( This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, Near East University, Near East Boulevard, ZIP: 99138, Nicosia / TRNC, Mersin 10, Turkey; Tel: +90(392)2236464; E-mail:


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Asra Sabir Hussain
The University of Edinburgh Business School, UK

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José Ricardo Kina
Department of Surgery and Integrated Clinic,
Araçatuba School of Dentistry, São Paulo State University

"The Publication Manager was very cooperative and replied my mails and guided me without any delays; however the reviewing process was too long."

Mahtab Memarpour
Prevention of Oral and Dental Disease Research Center,
Department of Pediatric Dentistry, School of Dentistry,
Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz,

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