1 Department of Oral Biochemistry, Division of Oral Structure, Function and Development, Asahi University School of Dentistry, 1851 Hozumi, Mizuho, Gifu, 501-0296, Japan
2 Department of Management and Information Studies, Chemistry Laboratory, Asahi University School of Business Administration, 1851 Hozumi, Mizuho, Gifu501-0296, Japan
3 Department of Oral Health Science, Gerodontology, Faculty of Dental Medicine and Graduate School of Dental Medicine, Hokkaido University, Kita-13, Nishi-7, Kita-ku, Sapporo, 060-8586, Japan
4 Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, 3-9 Fukuura, Kanazawa-ku, Yokohama, 236-0004, Japan
In order to survive, cancers control immune systems and evade immune detection using mediators consisting of immune checkpoint molecules and cellular systems associated with immune suppression.
During the development of cancer and chronic infections, the immune checkpoints and cellular components including regulatory T cells, myeloid derived suppressor cells and cancer associated fibroblasts are often enhanced as a mechanism of immune subversion and have therefore become very important therapeutic targets.
In this review, we will discuss the complexity of immune-suppressive mechanisms in the tumor milieu of cancers, including oral malignancy.
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* Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Oral Biochemistry, Asahi University School of Dentistry, 1851 Hozumi, Mizuho, Gifu, 501-0296, Japan; Tel: +81-058-329-1416; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org