The Open Dentistry Journal

ISSN: 1874-2106 ― Volume 14, 2020

The IG- file use to Gauge the Apical Diameter in Endodontics: An In Vitro Study

Massimo Amato1, Alfredo Iandolo2, Giuseppe Pantaleo2, Dina Abtellatif 3, Michele Simeone2, Angelo Lizio4, Roberto Lo Giudice5, Giuseppe Lo Giudice4, *
1 Department of Medicine and Surgery, Salerno University, Salerno, Italy
2 Department of Neurosciences, Reproductive and Odontostomatological Sciences, Naples Federico II University, Naples, Italy
3 Department of Endodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Alexandria, Alexandria, Egypt
4 Department. of Biomedical and Dental Sciences and Morphofunctional Imaging, Messina University, Messina, Italy
5 Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Messina University, Messina, Italy



The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the IG-file, a new instrument designed for apical diameter gauging.

Materials and Methods:

After shaping with F1 Universal Protaper, 60 roots were randomly divided into two groups and assigned to two operators, One Expert in Endodontics (EO) and One Unexpert (UO).

In each sample, after canal curvatures have been detected, the apical diameters were measured with the IG-file and the K-NiTi. The results were compared with the reference value obtained by retrograde apical gauging. The data were statistically analyzed.


Among 60 samples, 10% of errors were recorded when the IG-files were used; in the K-NiTi group the incorrect measurements were 70%.

In both groups (expert and unexpert) the IG-file measurements were more accurate than the K-NiTi (90 vs 33 and 90 vs 26,7). The differences were statistically significant.

In curved canals, the difference between measurement rates performed with both instruments was statistically significant (85,7% IG-file vs 28,6% K-NiTi) as well as for the samples without curvatures (92,3% IG file vs 30,8% NiTi file).

In root canals without curvatures overestimation errors in K-NiTi file group are more frequent than underestimation errors. This difference was statistically significant.


A proper gauging of the apical diameter has a key role in endodontic therapy; an incorrect measurement can lead to clinical failures. This “in vitro” study highlights that IG-file improves measurement accuracy independently from clinician experience. Furthermore, in curved canals, the IG-file is more accurate than K-NiTi.

Keywords: Apical gauging, IG-file, Endodontic treatment, K-NiTi, F1 Universal Protaper, Thermo-plastic gutta-percha.

Article Information

Identifiers and Pagination:

Year: 2018
Volume: 12
First Page: 638
Last Page: 646
Publisher Id: TODENTJ-12-638
DOI: 10.2174/1745017901814010638

Article History:

Received Date: 7/5/2018
Revision Received Date: 30/7/2018
Acceptance Date: 10/9/2018
Electronic publication date: 28/09/2018
Collection year: 2018

© 2018 Amato et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: ( This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Biomedical and Dental Sciences and Morphofunctional Imaging, Messina University, Messina, Italy; Tel: +39 3927751551; E-mail:

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