The Open Dentistry Journal

ISSN: ― Volume ,

Effects of Cariogenic Bacteria and Sealant Evaluated by International Caries Detection Assessment System

Yoshiaki Nomura1, *, Yuko Fujita2, Yoko Ishihara3, Erika Kakuta4, Ayako Okada5, Kenshi Maki2, Nobuhiro Hanada1
1 Department of Translational Research, Tsurumi University School of Dental Medicine, Tsurumi-ku, Japan
2 Department of Health Promotion, Division of Developmental Stomatognathic Function Science, Kyushu Dental University, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka803-0844, Japan
3 Department of R & G, GC Corporation, 76-1, Hasunuma-cho, Itabashi, Tokyo174-8585, Japan
4 Department of Oral Microbiology, Tsurumi University School of Dental Medicine, Tsurumi-ku, Japan
5 Department of Operative Dentistry, Tsurumi University School of Dental Medicine, . Tsurumi-ku, Japan



Evaluation of tooth surface level effect of cariogenic bacteria and sealant.


International Caries Detection Assessment System (ICADS) is a clinical scoring system that can assess the non-cavitated early stage of dental caries by surface level. Scores used in ICDAS are ordinary and each tooth within one individual is not statistically independent.


In this study, by applying mixed effect modeling, the effect of cariogenic bacteria and fissure sealant for tooth surface-level caries progression was analyzed.


Ninety-eight patients who had been regularly visited the dental hospital for the regular check-ups were enrolled in this study. Among them, patients who visited at baseline, after one and two years, were included for the analysis. Fifty-two patients were dropped out. The study population consisted of 25 boys and 21girls and their mean ages were 9.3 +/- 2.1. Salivary levels of cariogenic bacteria were measured by qPCR. Mixed effect modeling with repeated measures was applied for the analysis.


Salivary levels of S. mutans and Lactobacilli were affected by the progression of the ICDAS score. Maxillary teeth, molars and buccal and occlusal surfaces were tended to progress. Maxillary tooth, molar tooth and buccal, approximal, and occlusal surface were tended to be affected by both cariogenic bacteria.


By applying mixed effect modeling, highly-detailed surface-level analysis can be available.

Keywords: ICDAS, Mixed effects modeling, Cariogenic bacteria, Fissure sealant, Follow up study, Dental caries.

Article Information

Identifiers and Pagination:

Year: 2019
Volume: 13
First Page: 512
Last Page: 519
Publisher Id: TODENTJ-13-512
DOI: 10.2174/1874210601913010512

Article History:

Received Date: 20/08/2019
Revision Received Date: 03/10/2019
Acceptance Date: 29/11/2019
Electronic publication date: 31/12/2019
Collection year: 2019

© 2019 Nomura et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: ( This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Translational Research, Tsurumi University School of Dental Medicine, 2-1-3 Tsurumi, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama 230-8501, Japan; Tel: (+81) 45-580-8462; Fax: (+81) 45-573-2473; E-mail:

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