The Open Dentistry Journal

ISSN: 1874-2106 ― Volume 14, 2020

Position of the Mandibular Foramen in Different Facial Shapes Assessed by Cone-Beam Computed Tomography - A Cross-Sectional Retrospective Study

Silvan Correa1, Rogério H. Lopes Motta1, Milena B. Fellipe Silva1, Sidney R. Figueroba2, *, Francisco C. Groppo2, Juliana C. Ramacciato1
1 Faculdade São Leopoldo Mandic, Instituto de Pesquisas São Leopoldo Mandic. Dr. José Rocha Junqueira, 13 - Ponte Preta, Campinas - SP, Brazil
2 Department of Physiological Sciences, Piracicaba Dental School, University of Campinas – UNICAMP. Av. Limeira, 901. Bairro Areião. Piracicaba, SP, Brazil



The mandibular foramen, located on the internal surface of the mandibular ramus, is an important anatomical landmark for the success during the inferior alveolar nerve block. This cross-sectional retrospective study aimed to evaluate the location of the mandibular foramen through Cone-Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) in different facial shapes.

Materials and Methods:

The determination of the location of the mandibular foramen was performed using CBCT of mesocephalic, dolichocephalic and brachycephalic patients (n=40 each). The ramus width (W), the distance from the mandibular foramen to the deepest point of the anterior border of the mandibular ramus (D), the distance from the mandibular foramen to the lowest point of the mandibular notch (V) and the distance from the inferior border of the mandible to the lowest point in of the mandibular border (R), as well as the ratios W/D and V/R, were measured. ANCOVA, two-way ANOVA and Chi-square tests were used to analyze the variation among the facial shapes.


The ramus width (W) was greater (p<0.0001) in the brachycephalic (28.4±0.5 mm) than in both mesocephalic (26.8±0.36 mm) and dolichocephalic (25.5±0.39 mm) patients. D (p=0.0433) and R (p=0.0072) were also greater in the brachycephalic (17.7±0.36 mm; 43.4±0.75 mm, respectively) than dolichocephalic (16.5±0.3 mm; 40.3±0.63 mm, respectively), but both did not differ from mesocephalic (17.3±0.36 mm; 41.8±0.66 mm, respectively) patients. The other measurements (V, W/D and R/V) did not significantly differ among facial shapes.


The localization of the mandibular foramen was, in the horizontal direction, more posterior in the brachycephalic patients and, in the vertical direction, higher in the dolichocephalic patients, when compared to the other groups analyzed. Thus, the anatomic data found in this study may help dentists to increase the success of the inferior alveolar nerve block and prevent surgical complications.

Keywords: Mandibular foramen, CBCT, Facial shape, Anatomy, Brachycephalic patients, Dolichocephalic patients,.

Article Information

Identifiers and Pagination:

Year: 2019
Volume: 13
First Page: 544
Last Page: 550
Publisher Id: TODENTJ-13-544
DOI: 10.2174/1874210601913010544

Article History:

Received Date: 19/08/2019
Revision Received Date: 07/11/2019
Acceptance Date: 10/12/2019
Electronic publication date: 31/12/2019
Collection year: 2019

© 2019 Correa et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: ( This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Faculdade São Leopoldo Mandic, Instituto de Pesquisas São Leopoldo Mandic. Dr. José Rocha Junqueira, 13 - Ponte Preta, Campinas - SP, Brazil; Tel: 55 19 32113600; E-mail:

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