The Open Dentistry Journal

ISSN: 1874-2106 ― Volume 14, 2020

Comparison of the Expression of Periodontal Markers in Dental and Bone Marrow-derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

Devy Garna1, 2, Manmeet Kaur1, Francis J Hughes1, *, Mandeep Ghuman1
1 Centre for Host-Microbial Interactions, Faculty of Oral, Dental and Craniofacial Sciences, King's College London, London, UK
2 Department of Periodontology, Faculty of Dentistry, Padjadjaran University, Sumedang , Indonesia



Periodontal ligament stem cells are a source of mesenchymal stem cells, but it is unclear whether their phenotype is distinct from mesenchymal stem cells derived from different tissues, such as those derived from bone marrow.


To investigate the expression of the putative PDL markers asporin, periostin, nestin and cementum protein 1, by periodontal ligament stem cells both constitutively and during osteogenic differentiation when compared to bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells, and dental pulp stem cells.


The primary human periodontal ligament, bone marrow, and dental pulp stem cells, and osteoblasts from different donors were cultured in vitro. The expression of periodontal marker associated genes during osteogenic induction was tested by qRT-PCR and immunofluorescence staining.


Asporin expression was detected in periodontal ligament stem cells and increased markedly during the time in culture (upregulated x53 fold at 21 days post-induction). During osteogenic differentiation, asporin expression significantly decreased in periodontal ligament cells whereas periostin significantly decreased in dental pulp cells. Periostin expression was absent in osteoblasts, but expression gradually increased in all other cells with time in culture. Nestin expression was mainly seen in the periodontal ligament and dental pulp cells and was largely absent in osteoblasts and bone marrow cells. Cementum protein-1 was most highly expressed in bone marrow cells and osteoblasts following osteogenic induction.


The results provide further evidence that periodontal ligament-derived and bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells are phenotypically distinct. Periodontal markers are also expressed in dental pulp stem cells.

Key words: Periodontal, Mesenchymal stem cells, Asporin, Periostin, Cementum Protein-1, Bone marrow.

Article Information

Identifiers and Pagination:

Year: 2020
Volume: 14
First Page: 196
Last Page: 202
Publisher Id: TODENTJ-14-196
DOI: 10.2174/1874210602014010196

Article History:

Received Date: 21/01/2020
Revision Received Date: 17/03/2020
Acceptance Date: 17/03/2020
Electronic publication date: 23/05/2020
Collection year: 2020

© 2020 Garna et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: ( This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Centre for Host-Microbial Interactions, Faculty of Oral, Dental and Craniofacial Sciences, King’s College London, Floor 17 Tower Wing, Guys Hospital, London SE1 9RT, UK; Tel: +44 (0)20 7848 8478; E-mail:

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