The Open Dentistry Journal

ISSN: 1874-2106 ― Volume 15, 2021

Effect of Fluoride Gels on the Surface Roughness of Different Composite Resins

Marcela Monice Arruda1, Marina Augusto Toppino1, Gabriela Monteiro Barbosa1, Hilton Túlio Costi2, Cecy Martins Silva1, Jesuína Lamartine Nogueira Araújo1, *
1 Department of Conservative Dentistry, School of Dentistry, Health Science Center, Federal University of Pará, Belém, Pará, Brazil
2 Museum Paraense Emílio Goeldi, Scanning Electron Microscopy Laboratory, Belém, Pará, Brazil



The pH of fluoride gels influences the roughness of composite resins, which affects their clinical durability.


To evaluate the effect of fluoride gels (1.23% acidified phosphate fluoride and neutral fluoride) on the morphology of different composite resins after finishing and polishing.


We prepared sixty specimens with a diameter of 5 mm and a height of 2 mm. The specimens were then divided into six groups (n = 10), according to the type of composite resin (Z250 micro-hybrid (Z), Filtek Z350 XT nanoparticles (XT), and Tetric N-Ceram nano-hybrid (TC)) and fluoride gel treatment (1.23% acidified phosphate (APF) or neutral fluoride (NF)) to measure surface roughness (Ra). The material was light-cured using an LED-curing unit (Elipar Freelight Deep Cure-3M/ESPE) for 20 s with a light intensity of 1.200 mW/cm2. Ra measurements were performed before and after treatment with different fluoride gels using a rugosimeter (Mitutoyo SJ210). After Ra, we selected two samples from each group for evaluation using scanning electron microscopy. Data were analyzed using the Shapiro-Wilk, ANOVA, and Tukey tests, with a significance of 5%.


The average Ra before and after NF did not differ statistically. The average Ra values of the groups treated with APF showed statistically significant differences. The photomicrographs of the groups treated with NF were similar to those of the groups without fluoride treatment. The APF-treated groups showed significant morphological changes.


NF did not promote changes in the morphology of the evaluated composite resins, in contrast to APF, which caused significant changes.

Keywords: Fluoride, Composite resin, Surface roughness, Mechanical properties, Topical fluorides, Scanning electron microscopy, Scanning electron microscopy.

Article Information

Identifiers and Pagination:

Year: 2020
Volume: 14
First Page: 474
Last Page: 481
Publisher Id: TODENTJ-14-474
DOI: 10.2174/1874210602014010474

Article History:

Received Date: 12/6/2020
Revision Received Date: 3/8/2020
Acceptance Date: 5/8/2020
Electronic publication date: 15/10/2020
Collection year: 2020

© 2020 Arruda et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Conservative Dentistry, School of Dentistry, Health Science Center, Federal University of Pará, Travessa Padre Eutiquio 1922/2100-Belém, Pará, Brazil, Tel: (091) 3119-8244, 99144-2849; E-mail:

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