1 Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Faculty of Dentistry, Mahidol University, 6 Yothi Street, Rachathewee District, Bangkok, 10400, Thailand
2 Department of Oral Biology, Faculty of Dentistry, Mahidol University, 6 Yothi Street, Rachathewee District, Bangkok, 10400, Thailand
Implant surface modification methods have recently involved laser treatment to achieve the desired implant surface characteristics. Meanwhile, surface modification could potentially introduce foreign elements to the implant surface during the manufacturing process.
The study aimed to investigate the surface chemistry and topography of commercially available laser-modified titanium implants, together with evaluating the cell morphology and cell adhesion of human fetal osteoblast (hFOB) seeded onto the same implants.
Six (6) samples of commercially available laser-modified titanium implants were investigated. These implants were manufactured by two different companies. Three (3) implants were made from commercially pure grade 4 Titanium (Brand X); and three were made from grade 5 Ti6Al4V (Brand Y). The surface topography of these implants was analyzed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and the surface chemistry was evaluated with electron dispersive x-ray spectroscopy(EDS). Human fetal osteoblasts were seeded onto the implant fixtures to investigate the biocompatibility and adhesion.
Results & Discussion:
Brand X displayed dark areas under SEM while it was rarely found on brand Y. These dark areas were consistent with their organic matter. The hFOB cell experiments revealed cell adhesion with filopodia on Brand X samples which is consistent with cell maturation. The cells on Brand Y were morphologically round and lacked projections, one sample was devoid of any noticeable cells under SEM. Cell adhesion was observed early at 48 hrs in laser-irradiated titanium fixtures from both the brands.
The presence of organic impurities in Brand X should not be overlooked because disruption of the osseointegration process may occur due to the rejection of the biomaterial in an in-vivo model. Nevertheless, there was insufficient evidence to link implant failure directly with carbon contaminated implant surfaces. Further studies to determine the toxicity of Vanadium from Ti6Al4V in an in-vivo environment should indicate the reason for different cell maturation.
Keywords: Bone formation, Biomaterial, Dental prosthesis, Osseointegration, Titanium, Affinity.
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* Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Oral Biology, Faculty of Dentistry, Mahidol University, 6 Yothi Street, Rachathewee District, Bangkok, 10400, Thailand; Tel: +662007849;