The Open Diabetes Journal

ISSN: 1876-5246 ― Volume 11, 2021

Markers of Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in only Diabetic and Obese Ghanaian Populations: The RODAM Study

Samuel N. Darko1, 2, William K.B.A. Owiredu2, Denis Yar1, Charles Agyemang3, Erik Beune3, Juliet Addo4, Ama de Graft Aikins5, Silver Bahendeka6, Frank Mockenhaupt7, Joachim Spranger8, Peter Agyei-Baffour9, Kerstin Klipstein-Grobusch10, 11, Liam Smeeth4, Ellis Owusu-Dabo1, 9, *
1 Kumasi Centre for Collaborative Research in Tropical Medicine, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST), Kumasi, Ghana
2 Department of Molecular Medicine, School of Medical Sciences, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST), Kumasi, Ghana
3 Department of Public Health, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands
4 Department of Non-Communicable Disease Epidemiology, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK
5 Regional Institute for Population Studies, University of Ghana, Legon-Accra, Ghana
6 Mother Kevin Postgraduate Medical School (MKPGMS), Uganda Martyrs University, Kampala, Uganda
7 Institute of Tropical Medicine and International Health, Charite-University Medicine Berlin, Germany
8 Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Charite-University Medicine Berlin, Berlin, Germany
9 School of Public Health, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST), Kumasi, Ghana
10 Julius Global Health, Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands
11 Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa



The RODAM study has established a link between peripheral insulin resistance and varying fasting blood glucose levels among Ghanaian populations. However, associations of oxidative stress and inflammation with type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) and obesity is yet to be assessed in this population.


This study determined the association of inflammatory and oxidative stress markers in T2DM and obesity among Ghanaian migrants in Europe and non-migrants in Ghana.


Socio-demographic and anthropometric variables were collected from 5350 participants of 25-70 years and stratified into migrant Ghanaians (n= 2921), urban (n=1411) and rural Ghanaians (n=1018). C-Reactive Protein (CRP), Uric Acid (UA) and ferritin were quantified and associations drawn between these markers and the metabolic disorders using logistic regression.


Overall mean ages (years) were highest for migrant Ghanaians [46.59, 95%CI (46.24, 46.93)] compared to rural [46.49 (45.72, 47.26)] and urban [45.24 (44.65, 45.83)]. CRP was associated with obesity and T2DM respectively in urban [OR=1.531, 95%CI (1.407, 1.666): OR=1.354, 95% CI (1.195, 1.535)] and migrant Ghanaians [OR=1.552, 95% CI (1.449, 1.662): OR=1.405, 95%CI (1.234, 1.600)]. Similarly, ferritin was positively associated (p<0.05) with T2DM in migrant [OR=1.312, 95% CI (1.058, 1.626)], urban [OR=1.972, 95% CI (1.510, 2.575)] and rural Ghanaians [OR=1.240, 95%CI (1.020, 1.507)].


CRP and ferritin are associated with T2DM in Ghanaian populations at varying magnitudes. Moreover, indulgence in lifestyles that elevate inflammation and oxidative stress has the potential to increase risk of T2DM and obesity among Ghanaian populations.

Keywords: Inflammatory marker, Oxidative stress, Obesity, Diabetes, Ferritin, CRP.

Article Information

Identifiers and Pagination:

Year: 2019
Volume: 9
First Page: 8
Last Page: 15
Publisher Id: TODIAJ-9-8
DOI: 10.2174/1876524601909010008

Article History:

Received Date: 04/03/2019
Revision Received Date: 14/06/2019
Acceptance Date: 08/07/2019
Electronic publication date: 31/07/2019
Collection year: 2019

© 2019 Darko et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: ( This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Kumasi Centre for Collaborative Research in Tropical Medicine, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST), Kumasi, Ghana, School of Public Health, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST), Kumasi, Ghana;

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