Whether people can become infected by head lice transferring from inanimate objects is a topic of controversy. This paper reviews the evidence available from experimental studies in controlled laboratory experiments and data from field studies. The weight of evidence appears to be against transmission from inanimate objects being significant, and the promotion of inanimate objects that play an epidemiologically important role in head lice dispersal is not supported by evidence. We conclude that the control of head lice should focus on the head, not on the environment. However, additional studies are needed to quantify transmission risk via inanimate objects and the probability that head lice eggs survive and hatch off-host.