The Open Drug Safety Journal


ISSN: 1876-8180 ― Volume 4, 2013

Impact of Educational Intervention for Improving Pharmacist Knowledge in Adverse Drug Reactions (ADR) Reporting: Experience from Malaysia

Ramadan Mohamed Elkalmi*, 1, Mohamed Azmi Hassali1, Mohamed Izham M Ibrahim2
1 Discipline of Social and Administrative Pharmacy, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia;
2 Pharmacy Practice Department, College Of Pharmacy, Al Qassim University, Buraidah,Saudi Arabia



Community Pharmacists are one of healthcare professionals who can play an important role in the reporting of Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs) due to the advantageous position in terms of direct contact with the patients and specialization in medicine. Nevertheless, literatures indicated that ADRs under-reporting are common among community pharmacists in both developed and developing countries.


To assess the knowledge and perception of community pharmacists in Malaysia towards the reporting of ADRs and to evaluate the effectiveness of an educational program for improving pharmacist knowledge in ADRs reporting.


A cross-sectional study employing pre and post intervention design was undertaken with a sample of 42 community pharmacists. Changes in scores before and after the completion of the training program in knowledge and perception were measured. Statistical analysis: The data were analyzed by using SPSS version 17.0 software package (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Both descriptive and inferential statistics were used when ever appropriate. Frequencies and percentages were used to describe the respondents’ demographic information and professional characteristics. Wilcoxon Signed ranks test, Paired sample t test and The McNemar χ2 test were applied to compare the differences in knowledge and perception before and after the educational program whenever appropriate.


Forty-two community pharmacists (CPs) were enrolled in this study. A comparison of CPs knowledge before and immediately after the implementation of the education program showed significant differences. The participating CPs’ mean±SD total scores in the knowledge of pharmacovigilance and ADRs reporting significantly increased compared to the baseline following the intervention 4.6±1.9 to 8.3±1.4 (p<0.001), the possible score in knowledge domain ranged from zero to10. Only a few (n=3, 7%) participants reported that they do not have any ideas of how to report ADR to the relevant authorities in Malaysia compared to pre-intervention case (n= 22, 50%). Upon completion of the education program, more than forty of the respondents (n=19, 45%) believed that they were confident of their knowledge in detection and performing ADRs reporting, in contrast with pre-intervention frequencies, slightly more than fifty percent of the participants agreed that their knowledge in ADR limit their ability to detect and report of ADRs (n= 32, 55%), (N=42, P = 0.004).


The finding of the study indicates the need for designing educational programs for community pharmacists, in order to improve the level of knowledge towards the pharmacovigilance and ADRs reporting process locally.

Keywords: Pharmacovigilance, adverse drug reaction reporting, community pharmacists, educational program, Malaysia.

Article Information

Identifiers and Pagination:

Year: 2011
Volume: 2
First Page: 47
Last Page: 53
Publisher Id: TODSJ-2-47
DOI: 10.2174/1876818001102010047

Article History:

Received Date: 29/8/2010
Revision Received Date: 29/4/2011
Acceptance Date: 23/5/2011
Electronic publication date: 28/07/2011
Collection year: 2011

© Elkalmi et al.; Licensee Bentham Open

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestrictive use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Discipline of Social and Administrative Pharmacy, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia,11800, Minden Pinang, Malaysia; Tel: +60 (0)4 657 0017; Fax: +60 (0)4 653 4055; E-mail:

Track Your Manuscript:


"Open access will revolutionize 21st century knowledge work and accelerate the diffusion of ideas and evidence that support just in time learning and the evolution of thinking in a number of disciplines."

Daniel Pesut
(Indiana University School of Nursing, USA)

"It is important that students and researchers from all over the world can have easy access to relevant, high-standard and timely scientific information. This is exactly what Open Access Journals provide and this is the reason why I support this endeavor."

Jacques Descotes
(Centre Antipoison-Centre de Pharmacovigilance, France)

"Publishing research articles is the key for future scientific progress. Open Access publishing is therefore of utmost importance for wider dissemination of information, and will help serving the best interest of the scientific community."

Patrice Talaga
(UCB S.A., Belgium)

"Open access journals are a novel concept in the medical literature. They offer accessible information to a wide variety of individuals, including physicians, medical students, clinical investigators, and the general public. They are an outstanding source of medical and scientific information."

Jeffrey M. Weinberg
(St. Luke's-Roosevelt Hospital Center, USA)

"Open access journals are extremely useful for graduate students, investigators and all other interested persons to read important scientific articles and subscribe scientific journals. Indeed, the research articles span a wide range of area and of high quality. This is specially a must for researchers belonging to institutions with limited library facility and funding to subscribe scientific journals."

Debomoy K. Lahiri
(Indiana University School of Medicine, USA)

"Open access journals represent a major break-through in publishing. They provide easy access to the latest research on a wide variety of issues. Relevant and timely articles are made available in a fraction of the time taken by more conventional publishers. Articles are of uniformly high quality and written by the world's leading authorities."

Robert Looney
(Naval Postgraduate School, USA)

"Open access journals have transformed the way scientific data is published and disseminated: particularly, whilst ensuring a high quality standard and transparency in the editorial process, they have increased the access to the scientific literature by those researchers that have limited library support or that are working on small budgets."

Richard Reithinger
(Westat, USA)

"Not only do open access journals greatly improve the access to high quality information for scientists in the developing world, it also provides extra exposure for our papers."

J. Ferwerda
(University of Oxford, UK)

"Open Access 'Chemistry' Journals allow the dissemination of knowledge at your finger tips without paying for the scientific content."

Sean L. Kitson
(Almac Sciences, Northern Ireland)

"In principle, all scientific journals should have open access, as should be science itself. Open access journals are very helpful for students, researchers and the general public including people from institutions which do not have library or cannot afford to subscribe scientific journals. The articles are high standard and cover a wide area."

Hubert Wolterbeek
(Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands)

"The widest possible diffusion of information is critical for the advancement of science. In this perspective, open access journals are instrumental in fostering researches and achievements."

Alessandro Laviano
(Sapienza - University of Rome, Italy)

"Open access journals are very useful for all scientists as they can have quick information in the different fields of science."

Philippe Hernigou
(Paris University, France)

"There are many scientists who can not afford the rather expensive subscriptions to scientific journals. Open access journals offer a good alternative for free access to good quality scientific information."

Fidel Toldrá
(Instituto de Agroquimica y Tecnologia de Alimentos, Spain)

"Open access journals have become a fundamental tool for students, researchers, patients and the general public. Many people from institutions which do not have library or cannot afford to subscribe scientific journals benefit of them on a daily basis. The articles are among the best and cover most scientific areas."

M. Bendandi
(University Clinic of Navarre, Spain)

"These journals provide researchers with a platform for rapid, open access scientific communication. The articles are of high quality and broad scope."

Peter Chiba
(University of Vienna, Austria)

"Open access journals are probably one of the most important contributions to promote and diffuse science worldwide."

Jaime Sampaio
(University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Portugal)

"Open access journals make up a new and rather revolutionary way to scientific publication. This option opens several quite interesting possibilities to disseminate openly and freely new knowledge and even to facilitate interpersonal communication among scientists."

Eduardo A. Castro
(INIFTA, Argentina)

"Open access journals are freely available online throughout the world, for you to read, download, copy, distribute, and use. The articles published in the open access journals are high quality and cover a wide range of fields."

Kenji Hashimoto
(Chiba University, Japan)

"Open Access journals offer an innovative and efficient way of publication for academics and professionals in a wide range of disciplines. The papers published are of high quality after rigorous peer review and they are Indexed in: major international databases. I read Open Access journals to keep abreast of the recent development in my field of study."

Daniel Shek
(Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong)

"It is a modern trend for publishers to establish open access journals. Researchers, faculty members, and students will be greatly benefited by the new journals of Bentham Science Publishers Ltd. in this category."

Jih Ru Hwu
(National Central University, Taiwan)

Browse Contents

Webmaster Contact:
Copyright © 2021 Bentham Open