In less than 50 years the number of MDMA (3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine or Ecstasy) users in the
United States has gone from zero to nearly three million. For all of its popularity, very little is known about MDMA’s
probable mechanism of action, or the mechanisms by which it causes death and disability. Even less is known about this
drug’s checkered past, including dangerous plans by various government agencies to “weaponize” MDMA, and
misleading research sponsored and propagated by the U.S. government. Recently, evidence has begun to emerge that
MDMA may cause valvular heart disease and possibly myocardial disease as well. These issues have not yet appeared on
the media radar. For that reason, an historical review of this fascinating drug was undertaken here.