Bacterial Meningitis Profile in Newborns: Is the Epidemiology Changing?
F. Bennaoui1, 2, *, N. El Idrissi Slitine1, 2, S.B. Cissé1, 2, N. Soraa3, F.M.R Maoulainine2
1 Neonatal Intensive Care Department, Mohammed VI University Hospital and Research, Marrakech, Morocco
2 Team for Childhood, Health and Development, Marrakech School of Medicine, Cadi Ayyad University, Marrakech, Morocco
3 Microbiology` Department, University Hospital Mohamed VI, Marrakech, Morocco
The aim of the study was to determine the epidemiological characteristics of bacterial meningitis observed in neonates.
Materials and Methods:
A retrospective study of all cases of meningitis, hospitalized in the neonatal intensive care unit, Mohamed VI University Hospital, from January 2016 to December 2016.
Twenty of 794 neonates admitted (2.5%) developed meningitis,with a male predominance (12 boys). The mean age of symptom presentation was 5 days. All patients were symptomatic. The most common clinical features were: fever, respiratory distress and seizure. Microbiological analysis of cerebrospinal fluid was positive in 14 cases and resulted in the isolation of several unusual species such as, Streptococcus pneumoniae (4 cases), Coagulase-negative Staphylococci (3 cases), Enterococci (2 cases), Acinetobacter baumannii (2 cases) and one case each of Escherichia coli , Neisseria meningitidis and Klebsiella pneumonia. Interestingly, the two A. baumannii cases were nosocomially-acquired, while the origins of the other infections were community-acquired. Gram-positive bacteria were more frequently responsible (9/14, 64%). All cases were treated with a combination of third-generation cephalosporins-aminoglycosides, 1 case as treated by by adding ciprofloxacin and 3 cases were treated by adding glycopeptide antibiotics to the clinical therapeutic regimes. We reported 3 cases complicated with hydrocephalus. The mortality rate was 25%.
Bacterial meningitis is a medical emergency, and immediate diagnostic steps must be taken to establish the specific cause so that appropriate antimicrobial therapy can be initiated. Even with optimal therapy, morbidity and mortality may occur. Neurologic sequelae are common among survivors.
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* Address correspondence to this author at the Neonatal Intensive Care Department, Mohammed VI University Hospital and Research and Team for Childhood, Health and Development, Marrakech School of Medicine, Cadi Ayyad University, Marrakech, Morocco; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org