The Open Microbiology Journal

ISSN: 1874-2858 ― Volume 13, 2019

Assessment of Physicochemical and Microbiological Quality of Public Swimming Pools in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

Kokebe Yedeme1, Melese Hailu Legese2, *, Almaz Gonfa3, Somson Girma3
1 St. Peter’s Specialized Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
2 Department of Medical Laboratory Science, School of Allied Health Sciences, College of Health Science, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
3 Ethiopian Health and Nutrition Research Institute, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia



From swimming pools, bathers may acquire many potential pathogens or may be affected by the physicochemical characteristics of water used during bathing. Hence, this study aimed at assessing the physicochemical and microbiological quality of public swimming pools located at different hotels and recreation center in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.


A cross sectional study was carried out from February to May, 2016. Nine hotels and one recreation center which recognized to have public swimming services were included. A total of 60 swimming pool water samples from 10 swimming pools were collected at deeper, shallow and intake point twice on a weekly basis using a 250 ml sterile bottle containing sodium thiosulphate. PH, residual chlorine and temperature of samples were recorded at the time of collection. Sample containing bottles were transported in ice box to microbiological laboratory and analyzed on the same day. Standard cultural and biochemical methods were used for isolation and characterization of the main microbial groups. Total viable count, total coliform count, fecal coliform count and E. coli were determined. Data was analyzed using SPSS Version 20.


Average PH and temperature of swimming pool water samples were 7.1 and 29oC respectively. Of all analyzed water samples, 58.4% (n=35/60) of them had PH range of 7.2-7.8, 58.3% (n=35/60) of samples had temperature in the range of 21oC-32oC and 25% (n=15/60) of water samples had residual chlorine in the range of 2-3mg/l. 73.3% (n=44/60) of the samples had a total viable count below 200 MPN/ml and 70% (n-42/60) of the samples had Total Coliform Count values less than 2 MPN/100 ml. Moreover, 66.7% (n=40/60) of the samples had fecal coliform counts falling below 1 MPN /100 ml. E. coli was absent in 70% (n=42/60) of the samples while it was present in 30% (n=18/60) of the samples.


PH, residual chlorine and temperature value of majority of the swimming pools’ water samples were within the acceptable limit. Regarding microbial quality, most swimming pools’ water samples complied to the WHO standard. Swimming pools that did not comply to the standard both in physicochemical levels and microbial quality need improvement due to their significant health implication.

Keywords: Microbial quality, Physicochemical, Safety, Swimming pools, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Article Information

Identifiers and Pagination:

Year: 2017
Volume: 11
First Page: 98
Last Page: 104
Publisher Id: TOMICROJ-11-98
DOI: 10.2174/1874285801711010098

Article History:

Received Date: 26/01/2017
Revision Received Date: 21/04/2017
Acceptance Date: 22/04/2017
Electronic publication date: 21/06/2017
Collection year: 2017

Article Metrics:

CrossRef Citations:

Total Statistics:

Full-Text HTML Views: 1239
Abstract HTML Views: 857
PDF Downloads: 446
ePub Downloads: 262
Total Views/Downloads: 2804

Unique Statistics:

Full-Text HTML Views: 748
Abstract HTML Views: 525
PDF Downloads: 300
ePub Downloads: 159
Total Views/Downloads: 1732
Geographical View

© 2017 Yedeme et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Medical Laboratory Science, School of Allied Health Sciences, College of Health Science, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia; Tel: +215913705279, E-mail:


"Open access will revolutionize 21st century knowledge work and accelerate the diffusion of ideas and evidence that support just in time learning and the evolution of thinking in a number of disciplines."

Daniel Pesut
(Indiana University School of Nursing, USA)

"It is important that students and researchers from all over the world can have easy access to relevant, high-standard and timely scientific information. This is exactly what Open Access Journals provide and this is the reason why I support this endeavor."

Jacques Descotes
(Centre Antipoison-Centre de Pharmacovigilance, France)

"Publishing research articles is the key for future scientific progress. Open Access publishing is therefore of utmost importance for wider dissemination of information, and will help serving the best interest of the scientific community."

Patrice Talaga
(UCB S.A., Belgium)

"Open access journals are a novel concept in the medical literature. They offer accessible information to a wide variety of individuals, including physicians, medical students, clinical investigators, and the general public. They are an outstanding source of medical and scientific information."

Jeffrey M. Weinberg
(St. Luke's-Roosevelt Hospital Center, USA)

"Open access journals are extremely useful for graduate students, investigators and all other interested persons to read important scientific articles and subscribe scientific journals. Indeed, the research articles span a wide range of area and of high quality. This is specially a must for researchers belonging to institutions with limited library facility and funding to subscribe scientific journals."

Debomoy K. Lahiri
(Indiana University School of Medicine, USA)

"Open access journals represent a major break-through in publishing. They provide easy access to the latest research on a wide variety of issues. Relevant and timely articles are made available in a fraction of the time taken by more conventional publishers. Articles are of uniformly high quality and written by the world's leading authorities."

Robert Looney
(Naval Postgraduate School, USA)

"Open access journals have transformed the way scientific data is published and disseminated: particularly, whilst ensuring a high quality standard and transparency in the editorial process, they have increased the access to the scientific literature by those researchers that have limited library support or that are working on small budgets."

Richard Reithinger
(Westat, USA)

"Not only do open access journals greatly improve the access to high quality information for scientists in the developing world, it also provides extra exposure for our papers."

J. Ferwerda
(University of Oxford, UK)

"Open Access 'Chemistry' Journals allow the dissemination of knowledge at your finger tips without paying for the scientific content."

Sean L. Kitson
(Almac Sciences, Northern Ireland)

"In principle, all scientific journals should have open access, as should be science itself. Open access journals are very helpful for students, researchers and the general public including people from institutions which do not have library or cannot afford to subscribe scientific journals. The articles are high standard and cover a wide area."

Hubert Wolterbeek
(Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands)

"The widest possible diffusion of information is critical for the advancement of science. In this perspective, open access journals are instrumental in fostering researches and achievements."

Alessandro Laviano
(Sapienza - University of Rome, Italy)

"Open access journals are very useful for all scientists as they can have quick information in the different fields of science."

Philippe Hernigou
(Paris University, France)

"There are many scientists who can not afford the rather expensive subscriptions to scientific journals. Open access journals offer a good alternative for free access to good quality scientific information."

Fidel Toldrá
(Instituto de Agroquimica y Tecnologia de Alimentos, Spain)

"Open access journals have become a fundamental tool for students, researchers, patients and the general public. Many people from institutions which do not have library or cannot afford to subscribe scientific journals benefit of them on a daily basis. The articles are among the best and cover most scientific areas."

M. Bendandi
(University Clinic of Navarre, Spain)

"These journals provide researchers with a platform for rapid, open access scientific communication. The articles are of high quality and broad scope."

Peter Chiba
(University of Vienna, Austria)

"Open access journals are probably one of the most important contributions to promote and diffuse science worldwide."

Jaime Sampaio
(University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Portugal)

"Open access journals make up a new and rather revolutionary way to scientific publication. This option opens several quite interesting possibilities to disseminate openly and freely new knowledge and even to facilitate interpersonal communication among scientists."

Eduardo A. Castro
(INIFTA, Argentina)

"Open access journals are freely available online throughout the world, for you to read, download, copy, distribute, and use. The articles published in the open access journals are high quality and cover a wide range of fields."

Kenji Hashimoto
(Chiba University, Japan)

"Open Access journals offer an innovative and efficient way of publication for academics and professionals in a wide range of disciplines. The papers published are of high quality after rigorous peer review and they are Indexed in: major international databases. I read Open Access journals to keep abreast of the recent development in my field of study."

Daniel Shek
(Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong)

"It is a modern trend for publishers to establish open access journals. Researchers, faculty members, and students will be greatly benefited by the new journals of Bentham Science Publishers Ltd. in this category."

Jih Ru Hwu
(National Central University, Taiwan)

Browse Contents

Webmaster Contact:
Copyright © 2019 Bentham Open