1 Department of Microbiology, Tri-Chandra Multiple Campus, Tribhuvan University, Katmhandu, Nepal
2 Department of Soil Science, Prithu Technical College, Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science, Tribhuvan University, Lamahi, Dang, Nepal
Antimicrobial resistance is a life threatening challenges to the world. Most of the well-known antibiotics are currently ineffective to several microbial diseases. Ampicillin, metronidazole, amoxicillin, cotrimoxazole, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid, gentamicin, and ceftazidime are common antibiotics whose resistance pattern has been elevated in recent years. The rise and dissemination of resistant bacteria has contributed in increasing cases of antimicrobial resistance. Multi-drug Resistant (MDR) organism such as Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomionas aeruginosa, Escherchia coli, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis are principal problems for public health and stakeholders. Globally, issues of antimicrobial resistance are major concern. In the context of Nepal, insufficient surveillance system, lack of appropriate policy, and poor publications regarding the use of antibiotics and its resistance pattern has misled to depict exact scenario of antimicrobial resistance. This mini-review presents current trends of antibiotic use and its resistance pattern in Nepal. In addition, global progression of antibiotic discovery and its resistance has been covered as well. Furthermore, use of antibiotics and possible ways on improvement of effectiveness have been discussed.
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* Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Microbiology, Tri-Chandra Multiple Campus, Tribhuvan University, GPO Box 5859, Sundhara, Kathmandu, Nepal; Tel: +977-9841-246887; E-mail: email@example.com