The Open Microbiology Journal

ISSN: 1874-2858 ― Volume 13, 2019

Non-Antimicrobial Drugs: Etodolac as a Possible Antimicrobial or Adjuvant Agent Against ESKAPE Pathogens

Sónia G. Pereira1, *, Vanessa S. Domingues2, João Theriága1, Maria de Jesus Chasqueira1, Paulo Paixão1
1 CEDOC – Chronic Diseases Research Center, NOVA Medical School, NOVA University, Lisboa, Portugal
2 Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal



Multiple-drug resistant bacteria are emerging exponentially in healthcare units, threatening public health and requiring novel therapeutic approaches. In 2017, World Health Organization published a list that frames antimicrobial resistant bacteria into priority levels for research of novel drugs to fight them.

Methods & Materials:

Antimicrobial resistant ESKAPE (Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter sp.) and Enterococcus faecalis and Escherichia coli pathogens are present in this list. Representative isolates of each species were used to test the Antibacterial and anti-biofilm formation activities of Etodolac (a Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug, NSAID) at 10 and 1 mM using a broth microdilution technique.

Results & Discussion:

Statistically significant (p< 0,05) results were observed against all tested gram-positives, particularly anti-biofilm activity against E. faecium. Etodolac had an almost null influence on tested gram-negatives, with the exception of one A. baumannii clinical isolate regarding biofilm formation inhibition. Observed differences deserve further analysis and prospection of the involved mechanisms, to unravel possible novel bacterial targets for drug development. Similar work with other NSAID’s may also be worth exploring to ascertain novel therapeutic applications for these drugs, particularly regarding biofilm formation inhibition, per si or as adjuvants of current antibiotherapy, mainly against gram-positives, as suggested by present work.


Already approved drugs in terms of pharmacokinetics and safety may deploy faster solutions for antimicrobial therapy against priority pathogens. Current work intends to bring attention to that possibility, particularly regarding NSAIDs, anti-biofilm formation and top priority pathogens.

Keywords: Novel antimicrobials, Anti-biofilm drugs, ESKAPE pathogens, Non-steroidal anti-inflamatory drugs, Adjuvant therapy, NSAIDs.

Article Information

Identifiers and Pagination:

Year: 2018
Volume: 12
First Page: 288
Last Page: 296
Publisher Id: TOMICROJ-12-288
DOI: 10.2174/1874285801812010288

Article History:

Received Date: 20/5/2018
Revision Received Date: 5/8/2018
Acceptance Date: 13/8/2018
Electronic publication date: 31/08/2018
Collection year: 2018

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© 2018 Pereira et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: ( This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the CEDOC – Chronic Diseases Research Center, NOVA Medical School, NOVA University, Lisboa, Portugal, Tel: (+351) 218 083 000, Fax: (+351) 218 851 920; E-mail:


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