Etiological Trends and Patterns of Antimicrobial Resistance in Respiratory Infections
Salma M. Al-Zain Ahmed1, *, Sara S. Abdelrahman1, Doua M. Saad1, Isra S. Osman1, Modasir G. Osman2, Eltahir A. G. Khalil1
1 Institute of Endemic Diseases, University of Khartoum, Khartoum, Sudan
2 Elzahrawi medical laboratory, Khartoum, Khartoum, Sudan
Respiratory infections are one of the commonest causes of morbidity and mortality related to infectious diseases worldwide.
The emergence of antimicrobial resistance is a major global health problem which is well established in developing countries.
Good clinical suspicion and correct laboratory identification of respiratory infection causing organisms followed by the appropriate management are needed to compact both community-acquired and nosocomial infection respiratory infections.
A retrospective study was carried out to elucidate the etiology of respiratory infections in Sudan, as well as to guide the physician to the best antimicrobial alternatives used in the treatment of respiratory infection.
Respiratory isolates that have been morphologically identified and biologically characterized were subjected to antibiotic susceptibility testing.
A total of 1481 respiratory specimens were examined, recovering 377 organisms from 350 culture positive samples [225(59.7%) sputum, 94(24.9%) broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL), 58(15.4%) Pleural fluid], the commonest organisms were Klebsiella ssp. (25.20%) and mycobacterium tuberculosis (25.20%), followed by Staphylococcus aureus(19.89%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa(8.49%). High rate of resistance of bacterial isolates was observed to Co-trimoxazole (BA), Ampicillin sulbactam (AS), Cefotaxime (CF) and Tetracycline (TE), being 80%, 72.3%, 68.8% and 66.9% respectively; on the other hand, very low resistance rate was found to Amikacin (AK) and Levofloxacin (LE), being 4.6% and 8.5%, respectively.
Guided prescription of antimicrobial agents must be implemented and controlled to limit further spread of antimicrobial resistance.
open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode). This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
* Address correspondence to this author at the Institute of Endemic Diseases, University of Khartoum, Khartoum, Sudan; Tel: +249927790916; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org