The Open Microbiology Journal

ISSN: 1874-2858 ― Volume 14, 2020

Physicochemical Properties and Microbial Quality of Water Used in Selected Poultry Farms in the Ashanti Region of Ghana

Frank B. Osei1, Vivian E. Boamah1, Christian Agyare1, *, Robert C. Abaidoo2
1 Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana
2 Department of Theoretical and Applied Biology, Faculty of Bioscience, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana



Water plays an important role in both domestic and commercial settings. However, some physicochemical properties and biological contaminants could render water unsafe for use. Contaminated water from various sources is used as drinking water and for processing of animal products in animal farms, which has resulted in infections among animals, including poultry, and contaminated animal products on the market.


To determine the physicochemical properties and microbial quality of water used as drinking water in selected poultry farms in the Ashanti region of Ghana.


The pH, turbidity, conductivity, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) and total hardness of poultry-drinking-water from 100 farms were assessed following WHO guidelines. The presence of total coliforms and faecal Enterococci was determined using the membrane filtration method. The presence of Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative Staphylococci were determined using selective culture media and their identities confirmed using biochemical tests.


pH of the samples ranged from 3.76 to 8.90, turbidity from 0.20 to 617 NTU, conductivity from 23.6 to 1114.0 µS/cm, TDS from 11.3 to 557 mg/L and total hardness from 17.1 to 192.0. Total coliforms and faecal Enterococci were present in 97% and 56% samples respectively. Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus and non-coagulase staphylococci were isolated from four samples.


Water used on poultry farms has varied physicochemical properties and could also be a potential source of pathogenic organisms. There should be regular monitoring and checks on the quality of water used in animal husbandry in order to prevent the use of contaminated water for drinking and processing of animal products.

Keywords: Water, Poultry, Physicochemical properties, Staphylococci, Coliforms, Pathogenic organisms.

Article Information

Identifiers and Pagination:

Year: 2019
Volume: 13
First Page: 121
Last Page: 127
Publisher Id: TOMICROJ-13-121
DOI: 10.2174/1874285801913010121

Article History:

Received Date: 21/11/2018
Revision Received Date: 31/03/2019
Acceptance Date: 02/04/2019
Electronic publication date: 31/05/2019
Collection year: 2019

© 2019 Osei et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana; Tel: 0246369803;Emails:;

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