Physicochemical Properties and Microbial Quality of Water Used in Selected Poultry Farms in the Ashanti Region of Ghana
Frank B. Osei1, Vivian E. Boamah1, Christian Agyare1, *, Robert C. Abaidoo2
1 Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana
2 Department of Theoretical and Applied Biology, Faculty of Bioscience, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana
Water plays an important role in both domestic and commercial settings. However, some physicochemical properties and biological contaminants could render water unsafe for use. Contaminated water from various sources is used as drinking water and for processing of animal products in animal farms, which has resulted in infections among animals, including poultry, and contaminated animal products on the market.
To determine the physicochemical properties and microbial quality of water used as drinking water in selected poultry farms in the Ashanti region of Ghana.
The pH, turbidity, conductivity, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) and total hardness of poultry-drinking-water from 100 farms were assessed following WHO guidelines. The presence of total coliforms and faecal Enterococci was determined using the membrane filtration method. The presence of Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative Staphylococci were determined using selective culture media and their identities confirmed using biochemical tests.
pH of the samples ranged from 3.76 to 8.90, turbidity from 0.20 to 617 NTU, conductivity from 23.6 to 1114.0 µS/cm, TDS from 11.3 to 557 mg/L and total hardness from 17.1 to 192.0. Total coliforms and faecal Enterococci were present in 97% and 56% samples respectively. Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus and non-coagulase staphylococci were isolated from four samples.
Water used on poultry farms has varied physicochemical properties and could also be a potential source of pathogenic organisms. There should be regular monitoring and checks on the quality of water used in animal husbandry in order to prevent the use of contaminated water for drinking and processing of animal products.
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* Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana; Tel: 0246369803;Emails: email@example.com; firstname.lastname@example.org