The Open Microbiology Journal

ISSN: ― Volume ,

Incidence and Bacterial Etiologies of Surgical Site Infections in a Public Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

Alem A. Kalayu1, *, Ketema Diriba2, Chuchu Girma2, Eman Abdella3
1 Department of Microbiology, Yekatit 12 Hospital Medical College, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
2 Department of surgery, Yekatit 12 hospital medical college, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
3 Department of Dermatology, Yekatit 12 hospital medical college, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia



Surgical Site Infections (SSIs) are among the frequently reported healthcare-acquired infections worldwide. Successful treatment of SSIs is affected by the continuous evolvement of drug-resistant microbes. This study investigated the incidence of SSIs, identifying the major etiologic agents and their drug resistance patterns in Yekatit 12 Hospital, Ethiopia.


A cross-sectional study was conducted on 649 patients who underwent surgery at Yekatit 12 hospital from April 2016 to April 2017. Socio-demographic and clinical data were collected from each patient on admission. After surgery, they were followed for SSI occurrence. SSI was initially diagnosed by a senior surgeon based on standard clinical criteria and then confirmed by culture. Isolates were tested for drug resistance according to the clinical and laboratory standards institute guideline.


Of the 649 study participants, 56% were females. Their age ranged from 9 months to 88 years with a median age of 37 years. The incidence of culture-confirmed SSI was 10.2% (66/649) where 73 isolates were recovered. About two-third of the isolates were Gram-positive bacteria. Staphylococcus aureus was the most frequently isolated (27/73, 37%) followed by Coagulase-negative staphylococci (18/73, 24.7%), Escherichia coli (11/73, 15.1%) and Klebsiella species (10/73, 13.7%). About 89% and 44% of S. aureus isolates were resistant to penicillin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, respectively. MRSA constituted 11% of the S. aureus isolates. All the Gram-negative isolates were resistant to ampicillin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole but susceptible to amikacin and meropenem. Klebsiella species showed 70-100% resistance to ceftazidime, cefuroxime, augmentin, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, cefepime and gentamicin. About 82% of E. coli isolates were resistant for chloramphenicol, cefepime, ceftazidime, augmentin, cefuroxime and 64% for gentamicin and ciprofloxacin.


The incidence of surgical site infection in Yekatit 12 hospital is 10.2%. Most of the SSIs were due to Gram-positive bacteria. Gram-negative isolates showed high resistance to the most commonly prescribed drugs. No resistance was found for meropenem indicating the absence of carbapenem-resistant bacteria. SSI treatments should be guided by culture and drug resistance test. Better infection prevention practices and continuous surveillance of antimicrobial resistance in the hospital are recommended for better patient care.

Keywords: Surgical site infection, Antimicrobial resistance, hospitalization, Clinical isolates, Infections.

Article Information

Identifiers and Pagination:

Year: 2019
Volume: 13
First Page: 301
Last Page: 307
Publisher Id: TOMICROJ-13-301
DOI: 10.2174/1874285801913010301

Article History:

Received Date: 08/09/2019
Revision Received Date: 04/12/2019
Acceptance Date: 05/12/2019
Electronic publication date: 31/12/2019
Collection year: 2019

© 2019 Kalayu et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: ( This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Microbiology, Addis Ababa, MCH building, 3rd floor, Room number, 321, Yekatit 12 Hospital Medical college, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; Tel: +251911784037; Email:

Track Your Manuscript:


"Open access will revolutionize 21st century knowledge work and accelerate the diffusion of ideas and evidence that support just in time learning and the evolution of thinking in a number of disciplines."

Daniel Pesut
(Indiana University School of Nursing, USA)

"It is important that students and researchers from all over the world can have easy access to relevant, high-standard and timely scientific information. This is exactly what Open Access Journals provide and this is the reason why I support this endeavor."

Jacques Descotes
(Centre Antipoison-Centre de Pharmacovigilance, France)

"Publishing research articles is the key for future scientific progress. Open Access publishing is therefore of utmost importance for wider dissemination of information, and will help serving the best interest of the scientific community."

Patrice Talaga
(UCB S.A., Belgium)

"Open access journals are a novel concept in the medical literature. They offer accessible information to a wide variety of individuals, including physicians, medical students, clinical investigators, and the general public. They are an outstanding source of medical and scientific information."

Jeffrey M. Weinberg
(St. Luke's-Roosevelt Hospital Center, USA)

"Open access journals are extremely useful for graduate students, investigators and all other interested persons to read important scientific articles and subscribe scientific journals. Indeed, the research articles span a wide range of area and of high quality. This is specially a must for researchers belonging to institutions with limited library facility and funding to subscribe scientific journals."

Debomoy K. Lahiri
(Indiana University School of Medicine, USA)

"Open access journals represent a major break-through in publishing. They provide easy access to the latest research on a wide variety of issues. Relevant and timely articles are made available in a fraction of the time taken by more conventional publishers. Articles are of uniformly high quality and written by the world's leading authorities."

Robert Looney
(Naval Postgraduate School, USA)

"Open access journals have transformed the way scientific data is published and disseminated: particularly, whilst ensuring a high quality standard and transparency in the editorial process, they have increased the access to the scientific literature by those researchers that have limited library support or that are working on small budgets."

Richard Reithinger
(Westat, USA)

"Not only do open access journals greatly improve the access to high quality information for scientists in the developing world, it also provides extra exposure for our papers."

J. Ferwerda
(University of Oxford, UK)

"Open Access 'Chemistry' Journals allow the dissemination of knowledge at your finger tips without paying for the scientific content."

Sean L. Kitson
(Almac Sciences, Northern Ireland)

"In principle, all scientific journals should have open access, as should be science itself. Open access journals are very helpful for students, researchers and the general public including people from institutions which do not have library or cannot afford to subscribe scientific journals. The articles are high standard and cover a wide area."

Hubert Wolterbeek
(Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands)

"The widest possible diffusion of information is critical for the advancement of science. In this perspective, open access journals are instrumental in fostering researches and achievements."

Alessandro Laviano
(Sapienza - University of Rome, Italy)

"Open access journals are very useful for all scientists as they can have quick information in the different fields of science."

Philippe Hernigou
(Paris University, France)

"There are many scientists who can not afford the rather expensive subscriptions to scientific journals. Open access journals offer a good alternative for free access to good quality scientific information."

Fidel Toldrá
(Instituto de Agroquimica y Tecnologia de Alimentos, Spain)

"Open access journals have become a fundamental tool for students, researchers, patients and the general public. Many people from institutions which do not have library or cannot afford to subscribe scientific journals benefit of them on a daily basis. The articles are among the best and cover most scientific areas."

M. Bendandi
(University Clinic of Navarre, Spain)

"These journals provide researchers with a platform for rapid, open access scientific communication. The articles are of high quality and broad scope."

Peter Chiba
(University of Vienna, Austria)

"Open access journals are probably one of the most important contributions to promote and diffuse science worldwide."

Jaime Sampaio
(University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Portugal)

"Open access journals make up a new and rather revolutionary way to scientific publication. This option opens several quite interesting possibilities to disseminate openly and freely new knowledge and even to facilitate interpersonal communication among scientists."

Eduardo A. Castro
(INIFTA, Argentina)

"Open access journals are freely available online throughout the world, for you to read, download, copy, distribute, and use. The articles published in the open access journals are high quality and cover a wide range of fields."

Kenji Hashimoto
(Chiba University, Japan)

"Open Access journals offer an innovative and efficient way of publication for academics and professionals in a wide range of disciplines. The papers published are of high quality after rigorous peer review and they are Indexed in: major international databases. I read Open Access journals to keep abreast of the recent development in my field of study."

Daniel Shek
(Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong)

"It is a modern trend for publishers to establish open access journals. Researchers, faculty members, and students will be greatly benefited by the new journals of Bentham Science Publishers Ltd. in this category."

Jih Ru Hwu
(National Central University, Taiwan)

Browse Contents

Webmaster Contact:
Copyright © 2020 Bentham Open