The Open Microbiology Journal

ISSN: ― Volume ,

Analysis of Routine and Integrative Data from Clostridioides difficile Infection Diagnosis and the Consequent Observations

Gabriella Piatti1, *, Marco Bruzzone2, Vincenzo Fontana2, Marcello Ceppi2
1 DISC, Department of Surgical Sciences and Integrated Diagnostics, University of Genoa, Genoa, Italy
2 Unit of Clinical Epidemiology, Ospedale Policlinico San Martino, Genoa, Genoa, Italy



Clostridioides difficile Infection (CDI) is an acute disease that needs a fast proper treatment. Unfortunately, the diagnosis, and above all the understanding of the results, remain arduous.


This study analyzed routine and integrative results of all fecal samples from patients over time. Our aim was to understand the dynamics of CDI infection and the meaning of “difficult to interpret” results, to make physicians better understand the various tools they can use.


We evaluated routine results obtained from 815 diarrheal stools with Enzyme Immunoassay (EIA) that detects C. difficile Glutamate Dehydrogenase (GDH) antigen and toxin B. We also reanalyzed a part of samples using integrative tests: a Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for C. difficile toxin B gene (tcdB) and the automated immunoassay VIDAS C. difficile system for GDH and toxins A/B.


EIA GDH positivity increased through multiple testing over time, with a P value <0.001, depicting a sort of bacterial growth curve. Eighty-five percent of GDH positive/toxin B negative, i.e., discrepant, samples PCR were tcdB positive, 61.5% of discrepant tcdB positive samples were VIDAS toxins A/B positive, and 44.4% of GDH EIA negative stools were VIDAS GDH positive.


The results confirmed the low sensitivity of the EIA system for C. difficile GDH and toxins, questioned the use of the latter for concluding any CDI diagnostic algorithm, and led us to indicate the algorithm beginning with tcdB molecular research, and continuing in positive cases with VIDAS CD GDH method, as the most effective for CDI.

Keywords: Clostridioides difficile infection, Diagnosis, Rapid enzyme immunoassay, Real-time polymerase chain reaction, Algorithm, TcdB molecular researc.

Article Information

Identifiers and Pagination:

Year: 2019
Volume: 13
First Page: 343
Last Page: 349
Publisher Id: TOMICROJ-13-343
DOI: 10.2174/1874285801913010343

Article History:

Received Date: 05/08/2019
Revision Received Date: 27/11/2019
Acceptance Date: 28/11/2019
Electronic publication date: 31/12/2019
Collection year: 2019

© 2019 Piatti et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: ( This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at DISC, Department of Surgical Sciences and Integrated Diagnostics, University of Genoa, 10 Largo Benzi, 16132, Italy; Tel: 39 3204207437;

Track Your Manuscript:


"Open access will revolutionize 21st century knowledge work and accelerate the diffusion of ideas and evidence that support just in time learning and the evolution of thinking in a number of disciplines."

Daniel Pesut
(Indiana University School of Nursing, USA)

"It is important that students and researchers from all over the world can have easy access to relevant, high-standard and timely scientific information. This is exactly what Open Access Journals provide and this is the reason why I support this endeavor."

Jacques Descotes
(Centre Antipoison-Centre de Pharmacovigilance, France)

"Publishing research articles is the key for future scientific progress. Open Access publishing is therefore of utmost importance for wider dissemination of information, and will help serving the best interest of the scientific community."

Patrice Talaga
(UCB S.A., Belgium)

"Open access journals are a novel concept in the medical literature. They offer accessible information to a wide variety of individuals, including physicians, medical students, clinical investigators, and the general public. They are an outstanding source of medical and scientific information."

Jeffrey M. Weinberg
(St. Luke's-Roosevelt Hospital Center, USA)

"Open access journals are extremely useful for graduate students, investigators and all other interested persons to read important scientific articles and subscribe scientific journals. Indeed, the research articles span a wide range of area and of high quality. This is specially a must for researchers belonging to institutions with limited library facility and funding to subscribe scientific journals."

Debomoy K. Lahiri
(Indiana University School of Medicine, USA)

"Open access journals represent a major break-through in publishing. They provide easy access to the latest research on a wide variety of issues. Relevant and timely articles are made available in a fraction of the time taken by more conventional publishers. Articles are of uniformly high quality and written by the world's leading authorities."

Robert Looney
(Naval Postgraduate School, USA)

"Open access journals have transformed the way scientific data is published and disseminated: particularly, whilst ensuring a high quality standard and transparency in the editorial process, they have increased the access to the scientific literature by those researchers that have limited library support or that are working on small budgets."

Richard Reithinger
(Westat, USA)

"Not only do open access journals greatly improve the access to high quality information for scientists in the developing world, it also provides extra exposure for our papers."

J. Ferwerda
(University of Oxford, UK)

"Open Access 'Chemistry' Journals allow the dissemination of knowledge at your finger tips without paying for the scientific content."

Sean L. Kitson
(Almac Sciences, Northern Ireland)

"In principle, all scientific journals should have open access, as should be science itself. Open access journals are very helpful for students, researchers and the general public including people from institutions which do not have library or cannot afford to subscribe scientific journals. The articles are high standard and cover a wide area."

Hubert Wolterbeek
(Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands)

"The widest possible diffusion of information is critical for the advancement of science. In this perspective, open access journals are instrumental in fostering researches and achievements."

Alessandro Laviano
(Sapienza - University of Rome, Italy)

"Open access journals are very useful for all scientists as they can have quick information in the different fields of science."

Philippe Hernigou
(Paris University, France)

"There are many scientists who can not afford the rather expensive subscriptions to scientific journals. Open access journals offer a good alternative for free access to good quality scientific information."

Fidel Toldrá
(Instituto de Agroquimica y Tecnologia de Alimentos, Spain)

"Open access journals have become a fundamental tool for students, researchers, patients and the general public. Many people from institutions which do not have library or cannot afford to subscribe scientific journals benefit of them on a daily basis. The articles are among the best and cover most scientific areas."

M. Bendandi
(University Clinic of Navarre, Spain)

"These journals provide researchers with a platform for rapid, open access scientific communication. The articles are of high quality and broad scope."

Peter Chiba
(University of Vienna, Austria)

"Open access journals are probably one of the most important contributions to promote and diffuse science worldwide."

Jaime Sampaio
(University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Portugal)

"Open access journals make up a new and rather revolutionary way to scientific publication. This option opens several quite interesting possibilities to disseminate openly and freely new knowledge and even to facilitate interpersonal communication among scientists."

Eduardo A. Castro
(INIFTA, Argentina)

"Open access journals are freely available online throughout the world, for you to read, download, copy, distribute, and use. The articles published in the open access journals are high quality and cover a wide range of fields."

Kenji Hashimoto
(Chiba University, Japan)

"Open Access journals offer an innovative and efficient way of publication for academics and professionals in a wide range of disciplines. The papers published are of high quality after rigorous peer review and they are Indexed in: major international databases. I read Open Access journals to keep abreast of the recent development in my field of study."

Daniel Shek
(Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong)

"It is a modern trend for publishers to establish open access journals. Researchers, faculty members, and students will be greatly benefited by the new journals of Bentham Science Publishers Ltd. in this category."

Jih Ru Hwu
(National Central University, Taiwan)

Browse Contents

Webmaster Contact:
Copyright © 2020 Bentham Open