The Open Microbiology Journal

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Nasopharyngeal Carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Associated Factors among Children in Southwest Ethiopia

Dejene Derseh Abateneh1, 2, *, Abera Kumalo Shano2, 3, Teshale Worku Dedo2
1 Kotebe Metropolitan University, Menelik II College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
2 Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Mizan-Tepi University, Mizan Teferi, Ethiopia
3 Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Wolaita Sodo University, Sodo, Ethiopia



In Ethiopia, Streptococcus pneumoniae is the predominant causative agent of pneumonia. About, 95% of bacterial pneumonia cases in under five years of children are caused by pneumococci.


To assess the nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae, its antibiotic susceptibility pattern, and associated factors among children in Southwest Ethiopia.


A cross-sectional study was conducted from October 01, 2018, to December 30, 2018. A total of 293 children aged ≤15 years were included in the study using a systematic random sampling technique. A nasopharyngeal swab was collected using a sterile cotton swab and cultured on blood agar supplemented with 5μg/ml gentamicin. The antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion technique.


The ages of participants ranged from 5 months to 14 years. The carriage rate of Streptococcus pneumoniae was 74/293 (25.3%). Being within the age group <3 years, the habit of sleeping with parent(s)/guardians and numbers of rooms per household were significantly associated with pneumococcal carriage. Streptococcus pneumoniae showed the highest resistance to Tetracycline, 36 (48.65%), and Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, 29 (39.2%), and was found to be susceptible to Chloramphenicol, 54 (77%), and Erythromycin, 38 (51.4%).


The nasopharyngeal carriage rate of Streptococcus pneumoniae is considerably high. High antimicrobial resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae against Tetracycline and Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole was observed. Living in a house with a single room, children’s habit of sleeping with parents/guardians and age are associated factors of high pneumococcal carriage. Strategies need to be designed to address the modifiable associated factors and the bacterium antibiotic resistance pattern should be monitored regularly.

Keywords: Streptococcus pneumoniae, Nasopharyngeal carriage, Antibiotics susceptibility, Children, Ethiopia, Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole.

Article Information

Identifiers and Pagination:

Year: 2020
Volume: 14
First Page: 171
Last Page: 178
Publisher Id: TOMICROJ-14-171
DOI: 10.2174/1874285802014010171

Article History:

Received Date: 10/4/2020
Revision Received Date: 15/6/2020
Acceptance Date: 18/6/2020
Electronic publication date: 30/07/2020
Collection year: 2020

© 2020 Abateneh et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: ( This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Kotebe Metropolitan University, Menelik II College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; P.O. Box: 3268. Ethiopia; Tel: +251920514158; E- mail:

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