The Open Microbiology Journal




ISSN: ― Volume ,
RESEARCH ARTICLE

Equine Granulocytic Anaplasmosis, A Neglected Disease: Risk Factors Associated with Prevalence of Antibodies in Equines



Francisco Carlos Rodrigues de Oliveira1, Marcia Farias Rolim1, Samira Salim Mello Gallo1, Célia Rachel Quirino2, Nicole Brand Ederli3, *
1 Laboratório de Sanidade Animal, Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro (UENF), Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ, Brazil, 28013-602
2 Laboratório de Reprodução e Melhoramento Genético Animal, Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro (UENF), Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ, Brazil, 28013-602
3 Instituto do Noroeste Fluminense de Educação Superior (INFES), Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Av. João Jasbick, s/n, Aeroporto, Santo Antônio de Pádua, RJ, Brazil, 28.470-000

Abstract

Background:

Anaplasma phagocytophilum, a tick-borne bacterium that causes granulocytic anaplasmosis, is a neglected pathogen in Brazil, and is diagnosed in several species of domestic and wild animals as well as in humans.

Objective:

This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of anti-A. phagocytophilum antibodies in Equidae from the state of Rio de Janeiro and to identify possible risk factors for infection.

Materials and Methods:

A total of 612 blood samples were collected from horses from 15 municipalities within the state. Moreover, an epidemiological questionnaire was administered to evaluate aspects related to seroreaction, taking into account the spatial distribution (properties, municipalities, and mesoregions), management practices, signs of disease, and the individual state of the animals. For the diagnosis, indirect immunofluorescence was performed.

Results:

In the present study, 124 (20.26%), out of a total of 612, animals with anti-A. phagocytophilum IgG antibodies at titers of 1:80 were detected. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the presence of the infection at the property (P <0.0001) and the origin (P = 0.0095) of the horse were the true risk factors for infection in the state of Rio de Janeiro.

Conclusion:

This allows to infer that the bacterium is distributed in all mesoregions of the state of Rio de Janeiro and that animals from other states can introduce the infection and make a property a focus of disease; it can also be inferred that these properties are important in the maintenance of the disease and the permanence of bacteria circulating in horses. It is also noteworthy that this was the first identification of mules as hosts of A. phagocytophilum infection.

Keywords: Granulocytic anaplasmosis, Hemobacteria, Horses, Mules, IFAT, Anaplasma phagocytophilum.


Article Information


Identifiers and Pagination:

Year: 2020
Volume: 14
First Page: 218
Last Page: 228
Publisher Id: TOMICROJ-14-218
DOI: 10.2174/1874285802014010218

Article History:

Received Date: 04/2/2020
Revision Received Date: 15/7/2020
Acceptance Date: 18/7/2020
Electronic publication date: 10/09/2020
Collection year: 2020

© 2020 de Oliveira et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode). This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


* Address correspondence to this author at the 3Instituto do Noroeste Fluminense de Educação Superior (INFES), Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Av. João Jasbick, s/n, Aeroporto, Santo Antônio de Pádua, RJ, Brazil; Tel: +55 (22) 27397359; E- mail: nicole.ederli@gmail.com



Track Your Manuscript:


Endorsements



"Open access will revolutionize 21st century knowledge work and accelerate the diffusion of ideas and evidence that support just in time learning and the evolution of thinking in a number of disciplines."


Daniel Pesut
(Indiana University School of Nursing, USA)

"It is important that students and researchers from all over the world can have easy access to relevant, high-standard and timely scientific information. This is exactly what Open Access Journals provide and this is the reason why I support this endeavor."


Jacques Descotes
(Centre Antipoison-Centre de Pharmacovigilance, France)

"Publishing research articles is the key for future scientific progress. Open Access publishing is therefore of utmost importance for wider dissemination of information, and will help serving the best interest of the scientific community."


Patrice Talaga
(UCB S.A., Belgium)

"Open access journals are a novel concept in the medical literature. They offer accessible information to a wide variety of individuals, including physicians, medical students, clinical investigators, and the general public. They are an outstanding source of medical and scientific information."


Jeffrey M. Weinberg
(St. Luke's-Roosevelt Hospital Center, USA)

"Open access journals are extremely useful for graduate students, investigators and all other interested persons to read important scientific articles and subscribe scientific journals. Indeed, the research articles span a wide range of area and of high quality. This is specially a must for researchers belonging to institutions with limited library facility and funding to subscribe scientific journals."


Debomoy K. Lahiri
(Indiana University School of Medicine, USA)

"Open access journals represent a major break-through in publishing. They provide easy access to the latest research on a wide variety of issues. Relevant and timely articles are made available in a fraction of the time taken by more conventional publishers. Articles are of uniformly high quality and written by the world's leading authorities."


Robert Looney
(Naval Postgraduate School, USA)

"Open access journals have transformed the way scientific data is published and disseminated: particularly, whilst ensuring a high quality standard and transparency in the editorial process, they have increased the access to the scientific literature by those researchers that have limited library support or that are working on small budgets."


Richard Reithinger
(Westat, USA)

"Not only do open access journals greatly improve the access to high quality information for scientists in the developing world, it also provides extra exposure for our papers."


J. Ferwerda
(University of Oxford, UK)

"Open Access 'Chemistry' Journals allow the dissemination of knowledge at your finger tips without paying for the scientific content."


Sean L. Kitson
(Almac Sciences, Northern Ireland)

"In principle, all scientific journals should have open access, as should be science itself. Open access journals are very helpful for students, researchers and the general public including people from institutions which do not have library or cannot afford to subscribe scientific journals. The articles are high standard and cover a wide area."


Hubert Wolterbeek
(Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands)

"The widest possible diffusion of information is critical for the advancement of science. In this perspective, open access journals are instrumental in fostering researches and achievements."


Alessandro Laviano
(Sapienza - University of Rome, Italy)

"Open access journals are very useful for all scientists as they can have quick information in the different fields of science."


Philippe Hernigou
(Paris University, France)

"There are many scientists who can not afford the rather expensive subscriptions to scientific journals. Open access journals offer a good alternative for free access to good quality scientific information."


Fidel Toldrá
(Instituto de Agroquimica y Tecnologia de Alimentos, Spain)

"Open access journals have become a fundamental tool for students, researchers, patients and the general public. Many people from institutions which do not have library or cannot afford to subscribe scientific journals benefit of them on a daily basis. The articles are among the best and cover most scientific areas."


M. Bendandi
(University Clinic of Navarre, Spain)

"These journals provide researchers with a platform for rapid, open access scientific communication. The articles are of high quality and broad scope."


Peter Chiba
(University of Vienna, Austria)

"Open access journals are probably one of the most important contributions to promote and diffuse science worldwide."


Jaime Sampaio
(University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Portugal)

"Open access journals make up a new and rather revolutionary way to scientific publication. This option opens several quite interesting possibilities to disseminate openly and freely new knowledge and even to facilitate interpersonal communication among scientists."


Eduardo A. Castro
(INIFTA, Argentina)

"Open access journals are freely available online throughout the world, for you to read, download, copy, distribute, and use. The articles published in the open access journals are high quality and cover a wide range of fields."


Kenji Hashimoto
(Chiba University, Japan)

"Open Access journals offer an innovative and efficient way of publication for academics and professionals in a wide range of disciplines. The papers published are of high quality after rigorous peer review and they are Indexed in: major international databases. I read Open Access journals to keep abreast of the recent development in my field of study."


Daniel Shek
(Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong)

"It is a modern trend for publishers to establish open access journals. Researchers, faculty members, and students will be greatly benefited by the new journals of Bentham Science Publishers Ltd. in this category."


Jih Ru Hwu
(National Central University, Taiwan)


Browse Contents



Webmaster Contact: info@benthamopen.net
Copyright © 2020 Bentham Open