The Open Microbiology Journal

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DNA Sequence Analysis of BlaVEB Gene Encoding Multi-drug Resistant and Extended-spectrum β-lactamases Producer Isolates of Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Mushtak T.S. Al-Ouqaili1, *, Eman A. Khalaf2, Shaymaa H. Al-Kubaisy3
1 Department of Microbiology, College of Medicine, University Of Anbar , Ramadi, 07830014212, Anbar Governorate, Ramadi, Iraq
2 Department of Biology, College of Education for Pure Sciences, University of Anbar, Ramadi, 07822067907, Anbar Governorate, Ramadi, Iraq
3 Department of Clinical laboratory Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Anbar, Ramadi, 07905584293, Anbar Governorate, Ramadi, Iraq



Multi-drug resistance Gram-negative bacteria possessing Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase (ESBL) genes are of concern because of their resistance to third-generation cephalosporins. This study aims to investigate the molecular basis of resistance to modern β-lactams by ESBLs encoded by the blaVEB gene and the gene’s role in resistance. Also, gene sequencing was used to compare genetic similarities with global isolates using phylogenetic and cluster analyses.


Between March and July 2018, a total of 100 Iraqi clinical isolates were examined, in this cross-sectional study, to determine their ESBL status using the double-disc synergy technique. Polymerase Chain Reactions (PCRs) were performed on extracted blaVEB genes and sequencing of the target PCR products was performed. All blaVEB sequences were compared with the available sequence data, using BLAST searches against the GenBank database.


A total of 35 isolates, comprising 5 Escherichia coli, 18 Klebsiella pneumoniae, and 12 Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates were confirmed to possess ESBLs; the blaVEB gene was detected in one isolate of each species. The sequencing of these genes revealed 99% similarity with the global standard genes deposited in GenBank.


The blaVEB gene plays an essential role in the resistance of ESBL-producing isolates to new β-lactams. Further, the sequencing and phylogenetic analyses of the genes from the P. aeruginosa, K. pneumonia, and E. coli isolates revealed 99% similarity with the GenBank global standard genes.

Keywords: Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase, VEB gene, PCR, DNA Sequence, GenBank, BLAST.

Article Information

Identifiers and Pagination:

Year: 2020
Volume: 14
First Page: 40
Last Page: 47
Publisher Id: TOMICROJ-14-40
DOI: 10.2174/1874285802014010040

Article History:

Received Date: 15/08/2019
Revision Received Date: 18/10/2019
Acceptance Date: 20/10/2019
Electronic publication date: 10/2/2020
Collection year: 2020

© 2019 Al-Ouqaili &

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: ( This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at: Department of Microbiology, College of Medicine, Anbar Governorate, Ramadi, Iraq; Tel: +964 07830014212;

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