The Open Microbiology Journal

ISSN: 1874-2858 ― Volume 14, 2020

The Role of IL-6, TNF-α, and VDR in Inhibiting the Growth of Salmonella Typhi: in vivo Study

Ami Febriza1, *, Rosdiana Natzir2, Mochammad Hatta3, Suryani As'ad4, Budu5, Cahyono Kaelan6, Vivien Novarina Kasim7, Hasta Handayani Idrus8
1 Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Muhammadiyah Makassar, Makassar, Indonesia
2 Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Medicine, Hasanuddin University, Makassar, Indonesia
3 Molecular Biology and Immunology Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine, Hasanuddin University, Makassar, Indonesia
4 Clinical Nutritional Department, Faculty of Medicine, Hasanuddin University, Makassar, Indonesia
5 Department of Ophtalmology, Faculty of Medicine, Hasanuddin University, Makassar, Indonesia
6 Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Hasanuddin University, Makassar, Indonesia
7 Faculty of Medicine, University Negeri Gorontalo, Gorontalo, Indonesia
8 Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, University Muslim Indonesia, Makassar, Indonesia


Background and aim:

The prevalence of typhoid fever is reportedly high, especially in Asia. When a pathogen enters the human body, there are markers in the form of molecules that will be known by the innate immune system. Specific molecular markers of gram negative bacteria, which are Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and Toll-Like receptors-4 will interact with LPS. The binding between LPS and TLR-4 will give rise to activation signals that will activate innate immune cells. Immune cells will release a number of proinflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α, IL-1, and IL-6. While Vitamin D Receptors (VDR) are expressed in large amounts in tumor tissue and infected cells. This study aimed to prove the role of IL-6, TNF-α, and VDR in inhibiting bacterial growth in mice that have been induced by S.Typhi.


This research was a real experimental pre-post test design to investigate the level of IL-6, TNF-α and VDR in suppressing the growth of bacteria in the peritoneal fluid of S. Typhi, male, mice BALB/c. Mice were divided into three groups comprised of 10 mice each. All mice in groups A and B were intraperitoneally inoculated with S. Typhi strain Thy1 in study day 0. Group A was treated with antibiotic Levofloxacine, on study day 4th. Another study group, group B, was used as a placebo and received aquades on study day 4th. While group C as a control was not inoculated with S. Typhi. Blood samples from three groups for the calculation of serum Il-6, TNF-α, and VDR were collected. This examination was taken four times; at baseline, 4th day, 10th day, and 30th day. For the calculation of bacterial colony, peritoneal fluid retrieval was collected three times, which is on 4th day, 10th day, and 30th day.


A repeated measure ANOVA in group A (antibiotic) and group B (placebo) group showed that mean IL-6, TNF-α, and VDR level differed statistically significant between times (p-value 0.000). There was a strong negative correlation between bacterial colony count and VDR level, which was statistically significant in both groups (group A; r = -0.875, p-value = 0.000 vs group B; r = -0.470, p-value = 0.002). IL-6 and TNF-α didn't give significant statistical correlation with bacterial colony count.


VDR, IL-6, and TNF-α play an important role in killing bacteria. From the results of this study, IL-6 level is related to the number of bacterial colonies, the lower the IL-6 level, the less the number of bacterial colonies. Similarly, TNF-α levels have a positive correlation with the number of bacterial colonies. While VDR levels are also related to the number of bacterial colonies, the higher the VDR level, the lower the number of bacterial colonies.

Keywords: Bacterial colonies, Colony count, IL-6, TNF-α, Salmonella, VDR, S.Typhi.

Article Information

Identifiers and Pagination:

Year: 2020
Volume: 14
First Page: 65
Last Page: 71
Publisher Id: TOMICROJ-14-65
DOI: 10.2174/1874285802014010065

Article History:

Received Date: 01/01/2020
Revision Received Date: 06/03/2020
Acceptance Date: 08/03/2020
Electronic publication date: 23/04/2020
Collection year: 2020

© 2020 Febriza et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Correspondence: Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Muhammadiyah Makassar, Makassar, Indonesia, Tel: (0411) 840199, Fax: (0411) 865588, Mobile: 085256655987 / 087840485864 (WA) E-mail:,

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