Ischemic Stroke and Epilepsy in a Patient with Tourette´s Syndrome: Association with the Antiphospholipid Syndrome and Good Response to Levetiracetam
M Seijo-Martínez1, * , J.A Mosquera-Martínez2, S Romero-Yuste2, J Cruz-Martinez2
1 Neurology Service, Hospital do Salnés, Spain
2 Rheumatology Service, Complexo Hospitalario de Pontevedra, Spain
The role played by different humoral factors, including antiphospholipid antibodies, in the pathogenesis of Tourette syndrome (TS) is still presently unclear. We present a patient with chronic and severe TS who, at the age of 16 years, presented an ischemic stroke in the left posterior cerebral artery and/or postero-inferior temporal branch of the left medial cerebral artery. A complete study was negative with the exception of a positive lupus anticoagulant. The stroke was related with the primary antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). The stroke manifested visual abnormalities and thereafter by secondary generalized complex partial seizures. The epileptic syndrome was initially difficult to control but responded dramatically to levetiracetam. With this therapy, the manifestations of TS, especially the tics, improved. We conclude that some TS cases may present APS. In addition, levetiracetam may be useful in the management of TS. Further investigations should pursue both these facts.
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* Address correspondence to this author at the Neurology Department, Hospital do Salnés, Villagarcia de Arosa, Pontevedra 36639, Spain; E-mail: email@example.com