Prevention Strategies for Cardioembolic Stroke: Present and Future Perspectives
Giacomo Giacalone*, 1, Mohammed Abballa Abbas1, 2, Francesco Corea*, 1, 3
1 Department of Neurology, Institute of Experimental Neurology (INSPE), IRCCS San Raffaele, Milano, Italy
2 Department Neurology, Sohag University Hospital, Sohag, Egypt
3 Unità Gravi Cerebrolesioni Acquisite (UGCA) Ospedale San Giovanni Battista, Foligno, Italy
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cause of cardioembolism. An update on secondary prevention strategies, used to protect patients from the risk of stroke in many common cardiac conditions, is presented in the paper. The main line of actions of stroke prevention in cardioembolism is mostly connected with antithrombotic drugs, but also other, more invasive, techniques are quickly emerging. Also the classic pharmacological prevention with coumarins may soon be overcome by new generation anticoagulants. Is an aggressive treatment of Patent Foramen Ovale (PFO) always recommended? One of the main challenges of the future years will be to understand competitiveness between old and new preventive strategies.
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* Address correspondence to these authors at the GG & FC: Department Neurology, INSPE; IRCCS San Raffaele, Via Olgettina, 48, 20132 Milano, Italia; Tel: +390226432813; Fax: +390226432951; E-mail: email@example.com; firstname.lastname@example.org