The Open Nursing Journal




ISSN: 1874-4346 ― Volume 13, 2019
REVIEW ARTICLE

Management of Chronic and Gestational Hypertension of Pregnancy: A Guide for Primary Care Nurse Practitioners



Leah Spiro*, Donna Scemons
California State University, Los Angeles, USA

Abstract

Aim:

The aim of this discussion paper is to outline the guidelines, according to the American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, about how to manage hypertension before and during pregnancy. Primary providers lack the knowledge to initiate treatment and manage hypertension in patients who are family planning or in the early stages of pregnancy before transferring care to an obstetrician, or perhaps patients who never do transfer care for lack of accessibility or funding. This paper aims to discuss how the Family Nurse Practitioner, or other primary care providers, may safely and efficiently maintain stable blood pressures in patients with hypertension before, during, and after pregnancy.

Background and Implications for Nursing:

Clinicians often defer gestational complications to obstetricians, however, it is crucial that there is a basic understanding of how to manage such issues. Primary practitioners do care for these patients during pre-gestation or fertility planning and oftentimes even during pregnancy in underserved communities with little access to obstetrical / prenatal care.

Design:

Discussion paper of ACOG guidelines and recommendations regarding safe management of hypertension before, during and after pregnancy.

Data Sources:

Inclusion criteria utilized most current research within the past 5 years, barring one source from the American Heart Association (no more current data) from 2011. This included an examination of current standards of care regarding hypertension during and before pregnancy according to the ACOG. Utilizing keywords such as hypertension, gestational hypertension, pregnancy, pharmacological management of hypertension, ACOG guidelines, treatment of hypertension in pregnancy. The decision to utilize guidelines set forth primarily by ACOG stems from ACOG being the governing body for Obstetricians / Gynecologists. Additionally, “standardization of care improves patient outcomes, which also should translate into a reduction in medical-legal exposure” [2]. As “such guidelines have been developed by specialty organizations such as the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (the college),” ACOG guidelines are nationally utilized in the care of OB/GYN patients.

Conclusion:

It is essential for primary care clinicians to employ current research regarding hypertension surrounding pregnancy and encourage patients who are family planning to utilize all such data in order to have a healthy and successful pregnancy. In order to do so, thorough practitioners are required to care for patients throughout the spectrum of all health and wellness related situations.

Keywords: Obstetics, Gastational hypertension, Pregestational hypertension, ACOG, Hypertension, Women.


Article Information


Identifiers and Pagination:

Year: 2018
Volume: 12
First Page: 180
Last Page: 183
Publisher Id: TONURSJ-12-180
DOI: 10.2174/1874434601812010180

Article History:

Received Date: 7/12/2017
Revision Received Date: 17/03/2018
Acceptance Date: 22/07/2018
Electronic publication date: 31/08/2018
Collection year: 2018

Article Metrics:

CrossRef Citations:
0

Total Statistics:

Full-Text HTML Views: 1039
Abstract HTML Views: 817
PDF Downloads: 364
ePub Downloads: 273
Total Views/Downloads: 2493

Unique Statistics:

Full-Text HTML Views: 653
Abstract HTML Views: 518
PDF Downloads: 199
ePub Downloads: 181
Total Views/Downloads: 1551
Geographical View

© 2018 Spiro and Scemons.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode. This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


* Address correspondence to the author at the California State University, Los Angele, USA, Tel: 323343300; E-mail: leahlousky@gmail.com


Endorsements



"Open access will revolutionize 21st century knowledge work and accelerate the diffusion of ideas and evidence that support just in time learning and the evolution of thinking in a number of disciplines."


Daniel Pesut
(Indiana University School of Nursing, USA)

"It is important that students and researchers from all over the world can have easy access to relevant, high-standard and timely scientific information. This is exactly what Open Access Journals provide and this is the reason why I support this endeavor."


Jacques Descotes
(Centre Antipoison-Centre de Pharmacovigilance, France)

"Publishing research articles is the key for future scientific progress. Open Access publishing is therefore of utmost importance for wider dissemination of information, and will help serving the best interest of the scientific community."


Patrice Talaga
(UCB S.A., Belgium)

"Open access journals are a novel concept in the medical literature. They offer accessible information to a wide variety of individuals, including physicians, medical students, clinical investigators, and the general public. They are an outstanding source of medical and scientific information."


Jeffrey M. Weinberg
(St. Luke's-Roosevelt Hospital Center, USA)

"Open access journals are extremely useful for graduate students, investigators and all other interested persons to read important scientific articles and subscribe scientific journals. Indeed, the research articles span a wide range of area and of high quality. This is specially a must for researchers belonging to institutions with limited library facility and funding to subscribe scientific journals."


Debomoy K. Lahiri
(Indiana University School of Medicine, USA)

"Open access journals represent a major break-through in publishing. They provide easy access to the latest research on a wide variety of issues. Relevant and timely articles are made available in a fraction of the time taken by more conventional publishers. Articles are of uniformly high quality and written by the world's leading authorities."


Robert Looney
(Naval Postgraduate School, USA)

"Open access journals have transformed the way scientific data is published and disseminated: particularly, whilst ensuring a high quality standard and transparency in the editorial process, they have increased the access to the scientific literature by those researchers that have limited library support or that are working on small budgets."


Richard Reithinger
(Westat, USA)

"Not only do open access journals greatly improve the access to high quality information for scientists in the developing world, it also provides extra exposure for our papers."


J. Ferwerda
(University of Oxford, UK)

"Open Access 'Chemistry' Journals allow the dissemination of knowledge at your finger tips without paying for the scientific content."


Sean L. Kitson
(Almac Sciences, Northern Ireland)

"In principle, all scientific journals should have open access, as should be science itself. Open access journals are very helpful for students, researchers and the general public including people from institutions which do not have library or cannot afford to subscribe scientific journals. The articles are high standard and cover a wide area."


Hubert Wolterbeek
(Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands)

"The widest possible diffusion of information is critical for the advancement of science. In this perspective, open access journals are instrumental in fostering researches and achievements."


Alessandro Laviano
(Sapienza - University of Rome, Italy)

"Open access journals are very useful for all scientists as they can have quick information in the different fields of science."


Philippe Hernigou
(Paris University, France)

"There are many scientists who can not afford the rather expensive subscriptions to scientific journals. Open access journals offer a good alternative for free access to good quality scientific information."


Fidel Toldrá
(Instituto de Agroquimica y Tecnologia de Alimentos, Spain)

"Open access journals have become a fundamental tool for students, researchers, patients and the general public. Many people from institutions which do not have library or cannot afford to subscribe scientific journals benefit of them on a daily basis. The articles are among the best and cover most scientific areas."


M. Bendandi
(University Clinic of Navarre, Spain)

"These journals provide researchers with a platform for rapid, open access scientific communication. The articles are of high quality and broad scope."


Peter Chiba
(University of Vienna, Austria)

"Open access journals are probably one of the most important contributions to promote and diffuse science worldwide."


Jaime Sampaio
(University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Portugal)

"Open access journals make up a new and rather revolutionary way to scientific publication. This option opens several quite interesting possibilities to disseminate openly and freely new knowledge and even to facilitate interpersonal communication among scientists."


Eduardo A. Castro
(INIFTA, Argentina)

"Open access journals are freely available online throughout the world, for you to read, download, copy, distribute, and use. The articles published in the open access journals are high quality and cover a wide range of fields."


Kenji Hashimoto
(Chiba University, Japan)

"Open Access journals offer an innovative and efficient way of publication for academics and professionals in a wide range of disciplines. The papers published are of high quality after rigorous peer review and they are Indexed in: major international databases. I read Open Access journals to keep abreast of the recent development in my field of study."


Daniel Shek
(Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong)

"It is a modern trend for publishers to establish open access journals. Researchers, faculty members, and students will be greatly benefited by the new journals of Bentham Science Publishers Ltd. in this category."


Jih Ru Hwu
(National Central University, Taiwan)


Browse Contents



Webmaster Contact: info@benthamopen.net
Copyright © 2019 Bentham Open