The Open Nursing Journal

ISSN: 1874-4346 ― Volume 13, 2019

Effects of Gargling with an Aroma Solution on Xerostomia, Halitosis, and Salivary pH in Hemodialysis Patients – A Randomized Controlled Trial

Min Young Oh1, Mi-Kyoung Cho2, *
1 Eulji General Hospital, Eulji University School of Medicine, 68, Hangeulbiseok-ro, Nowon-gu, Seoul, KR 01830, Republic of Korea
2 Department of Nursing Science, College of Medicine, Chungbuk National University, 1 Chungdae-ro, Seowon-gu, Cheongju-si, Chungbuk, KR 28644, Republic of Korea



Despite developments in renal replacement therapy, therapeutic fluid restriction reportedly induces xerostomia in 28.2~85.5% of hemodialysis patients, which causes serious inconveniences in their daily living and is detrimental to their quality of life.


The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of gargling with an aroma solution (A-Solution) on xerostomia, halitosis, and salivary pH in hemodialysis patients.


This study design was a randomized controlled trial. The participants of this study were 56 hemodialysis patients of E General Hospital in Seoul, Korea. They were divided into an experimental group (n=28) treated by gargling with 20 ml of A-Solution for 15 seconds and a control group (n=28) where pateints did not gargle with A-Solution, and data were collected from October 1 to November 15, 2013. The outcome variables were measured in the pretest and at 5, 30, 60, and 120 minutes in the two groups. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS (version 18.0 for Windows).


Xerostomia was lower in the experimental group than in the control group at each time point apart from the pretest and differed significantly in the interaction between groups and time points. Salivary pH and halitosis differed significantly between the experimental and control groups, across time points, and in the interaction between group and time point.


The findings of this study suggest that aroma gargling is a useful oral-care intervention for solving oral problems experienced by hemodialysis patients such as xerostomia and halitosis.

Keywords: Xerostomia, Halitosis, Salivary pH, Renal dialysis, Mouthwashes, Aromatherapy, Randomized controlled trial.

Article Information

Identifiers and Pagination:

Year: 2019
Volume: 13
First Page: 1
Last Page: 9
Publisher Id: TONURSJ-13-1
DOI: 10.2174/1874434601913010001

Article History:

Received Date: 10/9/2018
Revision Received Date: 21/11/2018
Acceptance Date: 23/11/2018
Electronic publication date: 23/1/2019
Collection year: 2019

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© 2019 Oh and Cho.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Nursing Science, College of Medicine, Chungbuk National University, 1 Chungdae-ro, Seowon-gu, Cheongju-si, Chungbuk, KR 28644, Republic of Korea; Tel: +82-10-2718-0273 / +82-43-249-1797; E-mail:


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