The Open Nursing Journal

ISSN: ― Volume ,

Public Health Nursing Art to Enhance “Strength of Community” in Japan

Reiko Okamoto1, *, Masako Kageyama1, Keiko Koide2, Saori Iwamoto3, Kayoko Goda4, Misa Shiomi5, Emiko Kusano6, Miho Tanaka1, Mai Tokimasa1, Misaki Kiya1, Hanayo Koetaka4
1 Division of Health Sciences, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka, Japan
2 Shitennouji University, Faculty of Nursing, Osaka, Japan
3 Kobe City College of Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Hyogo, Japan
4 Konan Women’s University, Faculty of Nursing and Rehabilitation, Hyogo, Japan
5 University of Hyogo, College of Nursing Art and Science, Hyogo, Japan
6 Osaka Medical College, Faculty of Nursing, Osaka, Japan



The purpose of this study is to shed light on the public health nursing art (PHNA) that enhances “Strength of Community (SC)” with practical activities of Public Health Nurses (PHNs) in Japan.


This study used a qualitative, descriptive design. According to the recommendation, we selected the best PHN activities as identified SC was enhanced that was implemented by multiple PHNs. Interviewees were PHNs who were recommended as PHNs who can talk about each activity on the representative of PHNs concerned. Data were collected three times each through a semi-structured interview, each lasting for about one hour. PHNA was classified into six frameworks: Searching; Stimulating; Facilitating; Cooperation; Continuing Quality Improvement; and Policy/Resource Development based on previous studies.


The results indicate that the PHNA included in the six frameworks may further be classified into 12 categories and 26 sub-categories. We also identified three elements of social justice, the underlying norm for the concept. 12 categories were extracted two for each framework, {Reality Searching}, {Reality Actualization}; {Ownership Fostering}, {Motivation Support}; {Collective Effort Promotion}, {Full Retention Promotion}; {Collaborative Piloting}, {Opportunity/Platform Provision}; {Capacity Building}, {Quality Management}; {Resource Development} and {Planning/Systematization}.


This study succeeded in demonstrating that the PHNA to enhance SC was collected, refined, and structured in a multidisciplinary and comprehensive manner, within the context of promoting positive health among the population. In the future, the remaining challenges include the substantiation of the PHNA at the sub-category level and the development and dissemination of programs to master them.

Keywords: Nursing art, Public health nurse, Positive health, Strength of community, Potential, Conceptualization.

Article Information

Identifiers and Pagination:

Year: 2019
Volume: 13
First Page: 177
Last Page: 185
Publisher Id: TONURSJ-13-177
DOI: 10.2174/1874434601913010177

Article History:

Received Date: 04/08/2019
Revision Received Date: 30/09/2019
Acceptance Date: 01/10/2019
Electronic publication date: 15/11/2019
Collection year: 2019

© 2019 Okamoto et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: ( This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Division of Health Sciences, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka, Japan;

Track Your Manuscript:


"Open access will revolutionize 21st century knowledge work and accelerate the diffusion of ideas and evidence that support just in time learning and the evolution of thinking in a number of disciplines."

Daniel Pesut
(Indiana University School of Nursing, USA)

"It is important that students and researchers from all over the world can have easy access to relevant, high-standard and timely scientific information. This is exactly what Open Access Journals provide and this is the reason why I support this endeavor."

Jacques Descotes
(Centre Antipoison-Centre de Pharmacovigilance, France)

"Publishing research articles is the key for future scientific progress. Open Access publishing is therefore of utmost importance for wider dissemination of information, and will help serving the best interest of the scientific community."

Patrice Talaga
(UCB S.A., Belgium)

"Open access journals are a novel concept in the medical literature. They offer accessible information to a wide variety of individuals, including physicians, medical students, clinical investigators, and the general public. They are an outstanding source of medical and scientific information."

Jeffrey M. Weinberg
(St. Luke's-Roosevelt Hospital Center, USA)

"Open access journals are extremely useful for graduate students, investigators and all other interested persons to read important scientific articles and subscribe scientific journals. Indeed, the research articles span a wide range of area and of high quality. This is specially a must for researchers belonging to institutions with limited library facility and funding to subscribe scientific journals."

Debomoy K. Lahiri
(Indiana University School of Medicine, USA)

"Open access journals represent a major break-through in publishing. They provide easy access to the latest research on a wide variety of issues. Relevant and timely articles are made available in a fraction of the time taken by more conventional publishers. Articles are of uniformly high quality and written by the world's leading authorities."

Robert Looney
(Naval Postgraduate School, USA)

"Open access journals have transformed the way scientific data is published and disseminated: particularly, whilst ensuring a high quality standard and transparency in the editorial process, they have increased the access to the scientific literature by those researchers that have limited library support or that are working on small budgets."

Richard Reithinger
(Westat, USA)

"Not only do open access journals greatly improve the access to high quality information for scientists in the developing world, it also provides extra exposure for our papers."

J. Ferwerda
(University of Oxford, UK)

"Open Access 'Chemistry' Journals allow the dissemination of knowledge at your finger tips without paying for the scientific content."

Sean L. Kitson
(Almac Sciences, Northern Ireland)

"In principle, all scientific journals should have open access, as should be science itself. Open access journals are very helpful for students, researchers and the general public including people from institutions which do not have library or cannot afford to subscribe scientific journals. The articles are high standard and cover a wide area."

Hubert Wolterbeek
(Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands)

"The widest possible diffusion of information is critical for the advancement of science. In this perspective, open access journals are instrumental in fostering researches and achievements."

Alessandro Laviano
(Sapienza - University of Rome, Italy)

"Open access journals are very useful for all scientists as they can have quick information in the different fields of science."

Philippe Hernigou
(Paris University, France)

"There are many scientists who can not afford the rather expensive subscriptions to scientific journals. Open access journals offer a good alternative for free access to good quality scientific information."

Fidel Toldrá
(Instituto de Agroquimica y Tecnologia de Alimentos, Spain)

"Open access journals have become a fundamental tool for students, researchers, patients and the general public. Many people from institutions which do not have library or cannot afford to subscribe scientific journals benefit of them on a daily basis. The articles are among the best and cover most scientific areas."

M. Bendandi
(University Clinic of Navarre, Spain)

"These journals provide researchers with a platform for rapid, open access scientific communication. The articles are of high quality and broad scope."

Peter Chiba
(University of Vienna, Austria)

"Open access journals are probably one of the most important contributions to promote and diffuse science worldwide."

Jaime Sampaio
(University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Portugal)

"Open access journals make up a new and rather revolutionary way to scientific publication. This option opens several quite interesting possibilities to disseminate openly and freely new knowledge and even to facilitate interpersonal communication among scientists."

Eduardo A. Castro
(INIFTA, Argentina)

"Open access journals are freely available online throughout the world, for you to read, download, copy, distribute, and use. The articles published in the open access journals are high quality and cover a wide range of fields."

Kenji Hashimoto
(Chiba University, Japan)

"Open Access journals offer an innovative and efficient way of publication for academics and professionals in a wide range of disciplines. The papers published are of high quality after rigorous peer review and they are Indexed in: major international databases. I read Open Access journals to keep abreast of the recent development in my field of study."

Daniel Shek
(Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong)

"It is a modern trend for publishers to establish open access journals. Researchers, faculty members, and students will be greatly benefited by the new journals of Bentham Science Publishers Ltd. in this category."

Jih Ru Hwu
(National Central University, Taiwan)

Browse Contents

Webmaster Contact:
Copyright © 2020 Bentham Open