The Open Nursing Journal




ISSN: ― Volume ,
REVIEW ARTICLE

Outsiders in Nursing - Voices of Black African Born Nurses & Students in the US: An Integrative Review



Kechi Iheduru-Anderson1, *, Christiana Akanegbu2, Jeff Inungu3
1 College of Health profession - Rehabilitation and Medical Sciences, Central Michigan University, Michigan, MI. United States
2 School of Nursing, Signature-Healthcare Brockton Hospital School of Nursing, Brockton, MA 02302, United States
3 School of Health Sciences, Public Health Division, Central Michigan University, Michigan, MI. United States

Abstract

Purpose:

The purpose of this integrative review was to describe the experience of being outsiders in nursing as described by Black African Born Nurses and Student Nurses (BABN&SN) in the U.S., give voice to their experiences in U.S. academia and healthcare settings, discuss the implications of the BABN&SN othering on the U.S. healthcare systems, and offer recommendations to address the issues based on the literature.

Methods:

An integrative review approach discussed by Whittemore and Knafl was utilized to review literature from nursing journal published from 2008 to 2019.

Results:

Major findings include collegial/peer isolation and loneliness; racism and discrimination, unwelcoming environment, silencing of voices, personal resilience, and sense of belonging. The results of this review indicate that BABN&SN experience in U.S. nursing contribute to harrowing periods of feeling like ‘an outsider.’

Conclusions:

BABN&SN are integral part of the U.S. nursing workforce and the healthcare system. Academic and work environments that support all nurses and students, despite their perceived differences, are essential to promoting an inclusive environment. Understanding the relational pattern that guides the BABN&SN socialization into nursing is vital to developing targeted support especially when entering the clinical practice environment.

Keywords: Cultural competency, Racism, Socialization, Healthcare disparities, Loneliness, Students-nursing, Education-nursing, Workplace.


Article Information


Identifiers and Pagination:

Year: 2020
Volume: 14
First Page: 120
Last Page: 134
Publisher Id: TONURSJ-14-120
DOI: 10.2174/1874434602014010120

Article History:

Received Date: 01/01/2020
Revision Received Date: 15/04/2020
Acceptance Date: 11/05/2020
Electronic publication date: 29/06/2020
Collection year: 2020

© 2020 Iheduru-Anderson et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode). This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


* Address correspondence to this author at the College of Health profession - Rehabilitation and Medical Sciences, Central Michigan University, United States; Tel: 9897742637: E-mail: ihedu1k@cmich.edu



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