The Open Nursing Journal

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Factors Related to Self-care in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

Seung-Yeon Kong1, Mi-Kyoung Cho1, *
1 Department of Nursing Science, College of Medicine, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju, Republic of Korea



The prevalence of diabetes and the personal and national burden from diabetes, a serious health issue around the globe, continues to increase. The purpose of this study was to identify factors influencing self-care among patients with type 2 diabetes.


We conducted a cross-sectional descriptive survey of 118 outpatients with type 2 diabetes in national university hospital C in Korea. Data were collected from self-report questionnaires covering information on demographics, self-care, and self-efficacy. Additional data were collected from medical records including information on HbA1c, fasting blood glucose levels, and cholesterol levels. Collected data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Pearson’s correlation coefficient, and multiple regression using SPSS/WIN version 22.0 software.


Factors affecting self-care were the following four: self-efficacy, HbA1c, occupation status, and smoking status. Higher engagement in self-care was associated with higher self-efficacy (β = .53, p < .001), lower HbA1c (β = -0.33, p < .001), unemployment (β = -0.20, p < .001), and non-smoking status (β = -0.15, p = .011). The regression model of self-care among the type 2 diabetes patients was statistically significant (F = 67.15, p < .001), and the explanatory power of the adjusted R2 was 69%.


Type 2 diabetes patients with high self-efficacy and self-care scores showed good glycemic control. Therefore, this finding suggests that nursing interventions should be developed to enhance self-efficacy, which is the greatest influencing factor for self-care.

Keywords: Type 2 diabetes, Self-care, Self-efficacy, HbA1c, FBG, Cholesterol, Glycemic control.

Article Information

Identifiers and Pagination:

Year: 2020
Volume: 14
First Page: 64
Last Page: 73
Publisher Id: TONURSJ-14-64
DOI: 10.2174/1874434602014010064

Article History:

Received Date: 02/02/2020
Revision Received Date: 09/04/2020
Acceptance Date: 10/04/2020
Electronic publication date: 21/05/2020
Collection year: 2020

© 2020 Kong and Cho.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Nursing Science, College of Medicine, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju, Republic of Korea 1 Chungdae-ro, Seowon-gu, Cheongju-si, KR 28644, Chungbuk, Korea; Tel: +82-10-2718-0273, +82-43-249-1797; Fax: +82-43-266-1710; E-mail:

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